Editor(s)

Department of Horticultural Crops Research, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Sistan, Iran.

ISBN 978-93-90888-59-7 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-67-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5

This book covers key areas of agricultural and food science. The contributions by the authors include phytochemical, nutrient composition, lipid stability, sensory characteristics, adulteration, un-permitted colours, food products, food technology, microbiology, food supply and demand, nutrient intake, self-sufficiency rate, fat recovery, protein recovery, membrane processing, high pressure processing, yield enhancing enzymes, amino acids, Kithul treacle, authenticity, adulteration, physiochemical parameters, beef, antioxidant properties, physicochemical characteristics, sensorial profile, functional foods,  antioxidant potential, free radical scavenging capacity, dairy goat milk. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural and food sciences.

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### Chapters

##### A Study on Nutritional Composition and GC-MS Phytochemical Analysis of Thaumatococcus daniellii Leaves

A. V. Iwueke, N. J. Ejekwumadu, E. C. Chukwu, J. A. Nwodu, C. Akalonu

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 1-7
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/2316E

Aims: There is a high risk associated with using artificial materials like polyethylene or foil for wrapping foods before cooking. The present study investigated the phytochemical and nutrient composition of Thaumatococus daniellii leaf, a local food wrapper. The use of this leaf is very ancient, and a close study of this leaf revealed that it has a large surface area and can be used to wrap large volumes of foods,

Place and Duration of Study: Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, between April and May 2018.

Methodology: The phytochemical compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) while proximate and vitamin composition were determined using standard analytical methods.

Results: The GC-MS phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of eight (8) bioactive compounds 1,2,3,4-Butanetetrol, d-Glycero-d-idoheptose, Cyclopentane,1-ethyl-1-methyl-, 6-Octyl-1-ol,3,7-dimethyl-, 2-Octenal, E- Octane,1-chloro-,2-Acetoxy-1,1,10-trimethyl-6,9-epidioxydecalin and Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-ol,2,6,6-trimethyl-,(1?,2?,3?,5?)- while vitamin assay results showed that Thaumatococcus daniellii leaf contained 3.1 mg/100g of vitamin A, 1.07 mg/100 g vitamin B1, 1.32 mg/100 g vitamin B3, 1.11 mg/100 g of vitamin B5, 16.34 mg/100 g of vitamin B6, 11.86 mg/100 g of vitamin B12 and 25.19 mg/100 g of vitamin C. Result of proximate analysis indicates that Thaumatococcus daniellii leaf contains 10.15% ash, 9.67% moisture, 20.41% protein, 11.42% lipids, 13.78% fibre and 34.57% carbohydrate.

Conclusion: In summary, our findings indicate that Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves contain bioactive compounds, an appreciable number of vitamins and high nutritional constituents. Hence Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves can be incorporated into animal feed, taking into cognizance the high protein, fat and vitamin contents. These suggest that it may play critical medicinal and nutritional roles and probably be a safer alternative to polyethylene paper and aluminum foil wraps; hence justifying its local usage as food wrapper. The leaves may also serve as a lead for the production of a healthier material for wrapping local foods.

##### Effect of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Nigella sativa Seeds in the Formulation of Beef Patties to Enhance the Lipid Stability and Sensory Characteristics

Boshra Varastegani, Muhammad Lubowa, José António Teixeira, Azhar Mat Easa

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 8-26
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/7592D

The oxidative stability of beef burgers incorporating Nigella sativa Super critical CO2 extraction (SC-NSX), Roasted Nigella sativa Super critical CO2 extraction (SC-roasted NSX) was compared with that of commercial-grade green tea extract (GTE) as positive control separately adding 200 and 500 mg/kg before kept at -18°C for a period up to three months. The chemical composition, TBARS, protein oxidation, proximate, cooking yield, pH, colour, and textural properties and sensory attributes were assessed while held in storage at - 18°C at 3 months. The incorporation of natural antioxidants however resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in TBARS (58%–62%) and protein oxidation (31–45%) as compared to control. Regarding the sensory characteristics, Furthermore, a vast improvement (P < 0.05) in cooking yield and textural properties was observed and noted. Although, incorporating NSX and GTE into the beef patties did not have a major influence (P > 0.05) on sensory acceptability, proximate composition, pH and colour of the patties.

##### Research on Adulteration Pattern in Different Food Products Sold in the Twin Cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad-India

K. Waghray, S. Gulla, P. Thyagarajan, G. Vinod

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 27-33
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/7157D

The adulteration of food has progressed from being a simple means of fraud to a highly sophisticated and lucrative business. Hence the present study was undertaken to identify the adulteration in different food products available in the twin cities of Hyderabad & Secunderabad. Chilli powder samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (8%) added colour (92%) and saw dust (48%). Dry ginger samples (8.33%) showed the presence of an un-permitted coloured dye ultramarine blue. The sweet meat samples showed the presence of aluminum foil (4.3%) instead of silver foil. Coconut burfi samples contained unpermitted color orange II and cotton candy and floss candy showed the presence of rhodamine B. The total percentage of adulteration in the food samples was found to be 49.41%. The adulteration which is been added in the food items can cause tremendous affect on health without our knowledge.

##### Development and Characterization of Cake Prepared With a Mixture of Mangalo Bean and Rice Flours

Ferlando Lima Santos, Merian Cunha Oliveira, Adriana Santos Nascimento, Karina Zanoti Fonseca, Bruna Aparecida de Souza Machado, Gustavo Modesto Amorim, Ana Carolina Chagas Portela, Ingrid Lessa Leal, Wagna Piler Carvalho dos Santos

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 34-47
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/7916D

This study aimed to develop a cake based on a mixture of mangalo bean and rice flours. We formulated and analyzed four formulations of cakes containing different percentages of mangalo flour (MF) and rice flour (RF) (0% MF + 100% RC, 10% MF + 90% RF; 20% MF + 80% RF, 30% MF + 70% RF). The formulation containing 30% of mangalo and 70% of rice was selected for microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluations (p <0.05). All parameters were within the recommended specifications. Among the beneficial characteristics of the cake are its low lipid content, high fiber, iron and zinc content, and freedom from gluten. Our survey showed 86% of acceptance and 52% of purchase intention. We can conclude that the use of a mixture of mangalo bean and rice flours is nutritious and well accepted, with good technological potential. In addition to that, the studied formulation fosters family farming and the traditional Brazilian diet.

##### A Review on Trends of Food Supply and Nutrient Intake in the Republic of Korea over the Past 30 Years

Jong-Gyu Kim, Joong-Soon Kim, Jeong-Gyoo Kim

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 48-58
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/7836D

Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate food supply and consumption trends in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) over the past 30 years (1980 to 2010).

Methods: We used time series data on Food Balance Sheets of Korea and National Health and Nutrition Survey from Statistics Korea. Regression analysis was performed for trends of food supply and demand, and t-test for gender difference in nutrient intake.

Results: The annual supply of cereals, rice and starch roots per person has decreased, while that of meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, milk, and fats and oils has increased (p < 0.05), respectively. These changes effect on nutrient intake: rice consumption has declined to one thirds of total energy intake, however the energy intake from lipid sources has increased up to 20% in 2000s. The nutrient intake levels are mostly sufficient to meet the recommended intake, but calcium intake is below the recommended level and sodium is three times above the recommended level. These problems are found in both genders, and males take in more calories and sodium than females (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: These changes in food consumption and supply resulted in lowering both quantity based food self-sufficiency rate and self-sufficiency of nutrition supply. It is therefore suggested that the supply of agricultural products should be stable and quality competitiveness in supply should be improved. Also measures and strategies in promoting rice consumption are required, such as promoting healthy diet via nutrition education, and disseminating healthy traditional Korean food. On a consumption side, we should raise awareness of consumption of agricultural products in Korea promoting healthy diets via nutrition education, and disseminating healthy traditional Korean food. We believe that through such efforts and promotion it will be possible to strengthen food security, to preserve traditional dietary pattern, and to maintain the health of Korean people.

##### Strategic Means to Enhance the Yield of Some Selected Cheese Varieties

A. H. Jana, Tejas B. Soni, Hetal Soni

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 59-74
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/2491E

Cheese is a ripened, semi-ripened or unripened dairy product prepared by coagulating the milk with rennet enzyme or acid and utilizing starter culture for acid and flavour development. Cheese making involves several steps during which losses of some milk solids is bound to occur at few stages which needs to be monitored and curtailed. The cheese manufacturers are very much concerned about the cheese yield since it reflects on the cheese manufacturing protocol and maximizes profit. The cheese yield is influenced by several controllable as well as uncontrollable factors. Maximizing cheese yield will depend on the recovery of milk fat and casein in the product. Enhancing the yield of soft cheeses is easier than to improve such aspect of hard cheese varieties. Reduced fat cheese making suffers from inherent low yield owing to the initial low total solids in the milk. Thus, laying focus on the yield enhancement of cheese is of utmost significance. Besides conventional techniques to enhance cheese yield, several strategic means are being employed in cheese factory that includes diet manipulation of the cattle, use of genetic engineering, use of additives such as stabilizers, enzymes, high protein food additives inclusive of ultrafiltered retentates and calcium salts, partial homogenization of milk, high pressure processing of milk, cryogenic cooling of cheese curd, etc.

##### Nutritional Content of Vietnamese Edible Bird’s Nest from Selected Regions: A Recent Study

Than Thi My Linh, Hoang Le Son, Huynh Mai Minh Ai

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 75-81
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/2484E

Aims: Edible bird’s nest is well known as health food and Chinese’s traditional medicine. Edible bird’s nest(EBN) is made from saliva secretions of the swiftlets, genus Aerodramus, whose habitats are Southeast Asian countries. It is believed that different nutritional composition of EBN is dependent on the geographical origin, environmental condition, climates and food availability . This study reports on the nutritional content of edible bird’s nest of two different sources - house-farmed bird’s nest (Long An and Kien Giang Province) and cave bird’s nest (Khanh Hoa Province) in Vietnam.

Methodology: Samples were collected from three different selected regions of Vietnam. Determination of protein, lipid and carbohydrate content was performed by AOAC Official Method 2001.12 (2005), AOAC Official Method 986.25 (2012) and FAO (1986), respectively. Meanwhile, Analysis of amino acid was conducted using Shimadzu gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID 2010) (EZ: faastTM USER’S MANUAL).

Results: Analytical results showed that the most abundant component found in these edible bird’s nests was protein (49.43 - 51.17%), followed by carbohydrate (36.93 - 38.53%), and lipid (0.01 - 0.04%). Fifteen amino acids including seven essential amino acids were found in the house-farmed bird’s nest while seventeen amino acids including eight essential were identified in cave bird’s nest. Proline (3.68 - 4.69%), aspartic acid (3.58 - 4.52%), and serine (3.74 - 4.09%) were the major amino acids found in both house-farmed and cave bird’s nests while lysine was found to be the lowest concentration (0.74 - 0.87%). Methionine and 4-hydroxyproline were presented only in the cave bird’s nest.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that there has been no significant difference in the content of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid (p > .05); however, the quality and quantity of some amino acids could be considered to be one of the key factors making the difference (p < .05) between house-farmed and cave edible bird’s nest.

##### Investigation of Physico-chemical Properties and Evaluation of the Sensory Attributes of Kithul (Caryota urens) Treacle to Determine the Adulteration

J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe, R. M. K. G. D. M. Rathnayake

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 82-90
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/2466E

##### The Influence of Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum basilicum Extracts on the Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Smoked Beef Stored at Room Temperature

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 91-103
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/2501E

Introduction: Incessant health risks associated with chemical preservatives have resorted to the need of exploring natural alternatives with antioxidant potentials in meat processing. In this study, the effect of Ocimum basilicum (OBE) and Gongronema latifolium (GLE) extracts were evaluated in smoked beef during 9 days of room storage (25±1°C). In the food industry, antioxidants which are essential properties in food preservation, are categorized into two groups: one is synthetic antioxidants such as nitrite and the second includes natural antioxidants such as plant extracts possessing antioxidant characteristics.

Methodology: Beef samples were prepared from freshly cut rounds (2 kg each) allotted to four groups containing Nitrite, OBE, GLE, and OBE+GLE respectively. Prepared beef samples were subjected to physicochemical (cooking loss, yield, and colour), sensory characteristics, pH, and lipid oxidation (TBARS) analyses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at ?0.05.

Results: No significant change was observed in cooking yield and colour although higher values occurred in control samples. OBE and GLE inclusions exhibited a marked potential in sensory characteristics such as flavour, texture, tenderness, juiciness with the panelists rating the latter as the samples with higher overall acceptability. Results in the storage period showed a significant progression in TBARS and pH values in all treatments with the highest and lowest values observed in control and OBE treatments.

Conclusion: GLE treated beef showed a marked efficacy throughout the storage period than the other extract-treated samples. With the need to provide natural alternatives against chemical preservatives, exploring its synergistic effects with other cheap, accessible and rich bioactive sources will be imperative in the shelf life extension of meat.

##### Characterization and Sensory Aspects of “Peulh Type” Fresh Cheese

Ferial Aziza Benyahia-Krid, Ouarda Aissaoui-Zitoun, Halima Boughellout, Faiza Adoui, Amani Harkati, Cocou Rogatien Bakou, Denis Wodo, Mohammed Nassereddine Zidoune

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 104-117
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/1654F

The calotropine, a vegetable coagulating enzyme, extracted from Calotropis procera is very used in the preparation of traditional Peulh cheese. Peulh cheese has attracted a lot of interest from stakeholders in the West African dairy industry. In this study, the fresh leaves of this vegetable were used to coagulate raw milk for the production of the fresh cheese Peulh type which was characterized by the physicochemical and sensory aspects. The results showed that this traditional cheese presented a total dry extract of 32.49%, pH 6.28, a lactic acidity of 0.14 p.cent, a protein content of 28.30% and a sweet whey with pH 5.90. The Peulh cheese making yield is 55.45% expressed on dry basis. The sensory aspects showed that it has a firm texture, elastic, not sticky, with a lactic odour and a lactic flavour and has an overall persistence in the mouth of about 15 seconds.

##### Effect of $$\beta$$-Cyclodextrin on Cholesterol Reduction in Egg and Duck Liver Pâté

Leocadio Alonso, María V. Calvo, Javier Fontecha

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 118-125
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/8294D

The use of $$\beta$$-cyclodextrin ($$\beta$$-CD) to reduce cholesterol is increasing in food research due to its affinity for non-polar molecules such as cholesterol. The objective of this study was to study the ability of -CD to remove cholesterol in natural egg, powdered egg, and duck liver pâté and its effect on individual fatty acids. A concentration of 5% of -CD was found to be a suitable amount to remove 80.04 4.96–82.12 5.36% of cholesterol from yolk and powdered eggs and 80.21 5.28% of cholesterol from duck liver pâté. $$\beta$$-CD complexed to cholesterol was precipitated and removed by centrifugation. Individual fatty acid compositions did not di er (p < 0.05) between the controls and the products treated with 5% $$\beta$$-CD. This study can be used in the development of low-cholesterol functional foods for people with hypercholesterolemia.

##### Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Potential of Various Cooking Oils: A Recent Study

Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Saira Hassan, Muhibullah Shah, Haseeba Shahzad, Raheela Jabeen, Aqsa Nawaz, Zakia Riaz, Sumaira Jamal

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 126-137
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/2343E

The study was based on the comparative evaluation of physical and physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of different cooking oils as awareness for the consumers. The chemical and physicochemical composition of the cooking oil significantly affects its nutritional and edible quality. The cooking oils extracted from sunflower, corn, canola, soybean, and rapeseed available for consumers as different commercial brands were purchased from the local market and analysed for their physical, physicochemical and antioxidant properties. All of the selected oils were found to be statistically similar on the basis of their physical properties including odour, specific gravity (P=.65) and refractive index (P=0.84). All of the selected oils contained vitamin A except one brand of each of the sunflower, corn and canola oils. The selected oils and their blend showed statistically different physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential (P=.000). The corn oil and rapeseed oil were found to be the best quality oil due to comparatively lower acid, peroxide and saponification values and higher antioxidant potential in terms of free radical scavenging capacity. The study results would provide valuable information to the consumers and the researchers regarding the selection of the best quality cooking oils available in the market. The rapeseed oil and corn oil B1 were found to be the best among the selected oil due to acceptable physical, physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

##### Effect of Feeding Practices, Dam Age and Grade on Kenya Alpine Dairy Goat Milk Production in Nyeri Region

Mburu Monica, Mugendi Beatrice, Makhoka Anselimo, Muhoho Simon

Current Research in Agricultural and Food Science Vol. 5, 12 May 2021, Page 138-146
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crafs/v5/7011D

In Kenya use of exotic dairy goats in breeding programmes for smallholder production systems has become popular, but information on the milk production is scarce. Dairy goat improvement strategies have mainly been crossbreeding of indigenous goats with exotic dairy types, resulting in crossbred populations with varying levels of exotic genes. A study was carried out to assess the milk yield of dairy goats reared in high potential and semi-arid areas of Nyeri County. This involved 190 smallholder farmers rearing Alpine dairy goats in Nyeri County and registered with Dairy Goat association of Kenya (DGAK), which formed 100% sampling of the population under study. The grade, feeding practices and age of the dairy goats were evaluated. The appendix grade in Kieni East gave the highest milk production of 2.69 liters per day, while the foundation grade in Mukurweini gave the lowest milk production of 0.98 litres per day. The higher milk production in Kieni East, a semi-arid area, was due to good feeding practices, where 43% of the farmers used concentrates during milking and 48% supplemented the feed with minerals. In the high potential area of Mukurweini none of the farmers used mineral supplements with only 13% using concentrates during milking. The age of the dam was evaluated for the pedigree grade, where it significantly affected the average milk production. At the age of 5.0 to 5.9 years, the pedigree grade in Kieni East and Mukurweini gave highest production of 2.84 and 2.96 liters per day respectively. The results demonstrated that poor feeding practices, dam age and grade, significantly (p?0.05) affected the Alpine dairy goat milk production.