Editor(s)
Prof. Raad Yahya Qassim
The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-969009-5-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-969009-2-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3

This book covers key areas of science, technology and research. The contributions by the authors include inner speech, imagined speech, EEG decoding, brain-computer interface, wavelet scattering transformation, Internet systems, internet protocol address, IP address depletion, coal waste dumps, combustion, photosynthesis, solar radiation, electromagnetic radiation, thermoelectric generators, floating roller peel test, adhesive joints, cohesive-zone modelling, peel strength, numerical modelling, periodontal therapy, optical cavity, electromagnetic resonance, medical-technical development, Stochastic volatility, Heston model, biostatistics, colonialism, safety compliance, employees’ perception, safety management system, emergency planning, occupational safety, radionuclides, radioactive source, mountain ecosystems, anthropogenic impacts, radiological safety, on-ground energy supply, hybrid-electric aircraft, airport infrastructure, sustainable aviation, aircraft systems. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science, technology and research.

 

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Chapters


Taxonomy of Internet Protocol Addressing Standards for Next Generation Internet Services

Michael F. Adaramola , Oluwagbemiga O. Shoewu, Ayoade B. Ogundare , Emmanuel B. Balogun

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 1-16
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/19985D

This chapter examines the issue of astronomically increasing demand for Internet Systems participating in the public network, which has resulted in the depletion of allocated Internet Protocol version 4.0 (IPV4) addresses. Each version of the internet protocol has similar characteristics and abilities. It extensively studies the categories of IP address standards and features. Four Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), namely ARNIC, RIPE, LACNIC, and ARPIN, have already exhausted their given IPV4 addresses, while the fifth, AFRICNIC (Africa's RIR), is said to be depleted. We also investigated the limits of IPV4, the characteristics of IPV6, and several modes of operation for the IPV6 standard. The current global population is approximately 7 billion people, with a projected increase to 9 billion by 2050, and IPV6 can easily support 2128=3.4028 x 1038 devices. This study also suggests a transition from current Internet Protocol version 4.0 (IPV4) addresses to new Internet Protocol version 6.0 (IPV6) addresses. This research has revealed that installing IPV6 is merely one feasible strategy for sustaining global Internet services.

Recovery from Fire Hazzard in Informal Settlements of the Western Cape Province, South Africa

Joseph Rudigi Rukema , Soomaya Khan

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 17-28
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/11459F

South Africa has been through a period of evolution from colonialism, to apartheid to democracy and informal settlements have become a major social problem in the post – apartheid South Africa. Fire hazards are becoming prevalent and has had a serious impact mainly on the poor and marginalised. Informal structures are often built close to each other and as a result fires often spread quickly which could result in destruction of the structures, serious injuries and sometimes lead to a possible death.  As a result, the consequences can be catastrophic. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore and examine the existing recovery strategies used by ordinary communities and government interventions and how both are combined to assist communities to cope and recover from fire hazards. In order to achieve the above objective, this desktop study relied on secondary data as sources of information. They included the existing reports, available literature, experts and professional’s analysis, communities’ testimonies available online in the form of audios YouTube videos. Television, Radio News, interviews provided rich information to the study. The findings have shown that the impact of fire hazards is devastating are becoming serious threat to safety of informal dwellers. The communities cope and recover from fire hazards.  Communities respond as the disaster occurs. Furthermore, the findings showed that while the government has intervened this has become a major issue that requires government intervention.

Electroencephalography-Based Inner Speech Classification Using LSTM and Wavelet Scattering Transformation (WST)

Mokhles M. Abdulghani , Wilbur L. Walters , Khalid H. Abed

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 29-52
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/6989C

In this paper, we propose an imagined speech-based brain wave pattern recognition using deep learning. Multiple features were extracted concurrently from eight-channel Electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Imagined speech, sometimes called inner speech, is an excellent choice for decoding human thinking using the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) concept. BCI is being developed to progressively allow paralyzed patients to interact directly with their environment. To obtain classifiable EEG data with fewer number of sensors, we placed the EEG sensors on carefully selected spots on the scalp. To decrease the dimensions and complexity of the EEG dataset and to avoid overfitting during the deep learning algorithm, we utilized the wavelet scattering transformation. The study was conducted in the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science at Jackson State University, USA. A low-cost 8-channel EEG headset was used with MATLAB 2023a to acquire the EEG data. The Long-Short Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network (LSTM-RNN) was used to decode the identified EEG signals into four audio commands: Up, Down, Left, and Right. Wavelet scattering transformation was applied to extract the most stable features by passing the EEG dataset through a series of filtration processes. Filtration has been implemented for each individual command in the EEG datasets. The proposed imagined speech-based brain wave pattern recognition approach achieved a 92.50% overall classification accuracy. This accuracy is promising for designing a trustworthy imagined speech-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) future real-time systems. For better evaluation of the classification performance, other metrics were considered, and we obtained 92.74%, 92.50% and 92.62% for precision, recall, and F1-score, respectively. Future work is planned to implement and test an online BCI system using MATLAB/Simulink and G. tec Unicorn Hybrid Black+ headset.

Solar Radiation Enhancement with Reflected Light from Stationary Mirrors

Tom R. C. Boyde

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 53-61
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/11364F

Solar radiation, an electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by the sun provides the heat and light required for life on Earth. This chapter primarily focuses on analyzing the approaches for solar radiation enhancement. It is common that Plants can benefit from radiation deflection in the direction of their growth in situations where plant growth is restricted by solar radiation intensity. An economical way of doing this is to use a convex mirror, adapted for the particular location, fixed above the target area so that no attention is required throughout the year or other period of use. Finally, it is concluded that an appropriately shaped, fixed, convex mirror can provide supplementary solar radiation to plants without any need for adjustment or maintenance during the period of use.

Estimating the Geodynamical Conditions of Region of Burning Coal Dumps

Andrian Batugin , Valeria Musina , Irina Golovko

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 62-74
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/6544C

This chapter estimate the linkage of burning dumps to boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks (geodynamically dangerous zones) for subsequent development of recommendations for reducing environmental hazard. Despite the steps being taken, the ecosystem of mining regions continues to be negatively impacted by the spontaneous burning of coal wastes. The hypothesis, which is put forward in the study, holds that coal dumps that are situated at the edges of blocks of crust that are geodynamically active encourage the formation of favorable conditions for the combustion of the waste product. Currently, platforms as well as tectonic activity zones exhibit geodynamically active crust faults that have an impact on engineering facility operation conditions. According to the concept of geodynamical zoning, geodynamically dangerous zones for engineering structures can be not only large, well-developed crust faults, but also just formed fractures that appear as boundaries of geodynamically impacting and hierarchically ordered crust blocks.

The analysis of 27 coal dumps location was made for one of the Eastern Donbass regions (Russia), 16 of which are burning. Nine of the sixteen burning dumps are located in geodynamically hazardous zones, which means that the concentration (pcs/km2) of burning dumps in these zones is 14 times higher than the average value. Since the probability of accidental obtaining of such a result is extremely low, this can be considered as the evidence of the linkage of burning dumps to geodynamically dangerous zones. All geodynamically risky zones can be separated into compression and tension zones based on the strained state of the rock massif in this area. Despite the meager statistics, there are twice as many burning dumps in tension zones as in compression zones. The study revealed that more favorable conditions for the fracture of the dump's insulating course and air intake into its body through cracks caused by traction force occur on the edges of crust blocks with tensile conditions. The thermal monitoring statistics that are currently available for burning dumps in this area also demonstrate the observation of linearly extended firing sources oriented along geodynamically risky zones. The obtained results show that geodynamical conditions of mining region, in which coal dumps are located, is important factor that impacts the creation of conditions for their spontaneous combustion and subsequent impact on the environment. Then this factor should be controlled by choosing the place for dumps location. It is proposed to carry out these works for the entire mining region of the Eastern Donbass, where there are more than 200 coal dumps.

Resonance in Biological Systems: An Interdisciplinary View

Erich Ebner

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 75-80
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/8338A

This chapter point out the fundamentals of physics and chemistry and to present them in order to promote an interdisciplinary understanding in biology and medicine on the basis of theoretical growth in knowledge. New findings can clarify existing strategies, broaden and deepen the benefits, as has been shown in wide areas of biological and medical science. And to do this you have to acquire the knowledge of basic research to an appropriate extent.

Resonance is a fundamental phenomenon of the energetic processes between energy and matter. It thus combines organic matter and its function into a viable dynamic that means life. This applies to all forms of life: human, animal and plant organisms. The various detections of resonance in physical and quantum mechanical basic research make the difficulty of understanding clear. Nevertheless, an understanding of the interdisciplinary use must be developed. The pharmacological and medical-technical development of the present makes this necessary. The medical therapeutic applications and especially the physical therapy strategies in terms of the tolerability of resonant processes must be consciously recognized and observed.

Evaluation of the Peel Strength of Adhesives by the Floating Roller Peel Test

J. B. S. Nóbrega , R. D. S. G. Campilho

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 81-91
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/8344A

The peel strength of adhesives can be obtained through the standardized Floating Roller Peel Test (FRPT). On the other hand, computational models of adhesive joints provide insight into the behaviour of these joints under load, providing information for subsequent engineering design. Despite the importance of the FRPT, little numerical modelling in this regard was found in the literature. In this work, a methodology to model the FRPT was developed and validated with experimental data. The proposed numerical model employs the finite element method (FEM) and cohesive zone modelling (CZM) and accurately represents the ASTM D3167 standard, including the interactions with the experimental device following a two-dimensional approach. Furthermore, an explicit solver was employed, and geometrical non-linearities were considered. As a case study, the adhesive Araldite® 2015 was experimentally tested and then modelled. The evolution of peel strength as the test progresses shows a comparable behaviour in both numerical and experimental data. Despite this, the numerical model shows several similarities with the physical test throughout the simulation, indicating that the model accurately represents the phenomenon. Therefore, it is suitable for further research on adhesive joints subjected to peel loads.

The Heston Model, widely used in financial markets to characterize stochastic volatility, could potentially be useful in accounting for the impact of volatility in the broad field of medicine. This theoretical article highlights the potential uses of the Heston Model to quantify volatility in healthcare, focusing on epidemiology and pharmacology. Conceptually, the ability of the model to quantify unpredictability could provide insight into complex medical processes with variable variability. Rigorous testing would be required to determine the feasibility and validity of applying a financial model to biological processes. Nonetheless, the hypothetical connections between financial market volatility and volatility in medicine merit further exploration. This theoretical article explores a broad overview of possible applications of the Heston Model to the medical field.

Laser Assisted Dentistry and Application of Erbium Laser in Periodontology – A Cutting Edge Technology

S. Sakthi Devi , Ashika Sulthana A. , Suganya Selvarangam

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 104-120
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/6746E

For more than 30 years, lasers have been employed in dentistry. Recent technological advancements and incorporating different wavelengths have resulted in an array of novel dental laser treatments. Nowadays, it is very essential for the clinical practitioners to be conversant regarding handling these gadgets and grasp their capabilities. In modern practice in dentistry, lasers are minimally invasive instruments that are designed to help dentists and dental hygienists learn more about lasers. Recently, its utility in implant salvaging has opened a wide range of applications. High sources of light including ultraviolet, visible, infrared spectrum have been of significant use in the field of medicine. In this case, dental lasers use visible and infrared spectrum. The composite curing light belongs to visible spectrum, diode lasers belonging to visible as well as near IR spectrum, erbium belonging to mid IR and CO2 belonging to IR with far wavelengths. With the advent of laser-assisted practice, sutures are rarely indicated since there is very minimal risk of surgical trauma, that does not heal by scarring the tissues. However, laser application is a practice that has been proven very efficient in enhancing the quality of life of patients undergoing treatment with ionizing radiation. Also, the high proportion of patient acceptance of laser dentistry is one of its greatest advantages. In today, dental lasers come as easily accessible, portable, lightweighted, compact equipment.

Considering laser usage in dentistry, the prognosis of patients treated seems to be comparatively optimistic in nature than the conventional methods with respect to its enhanced healing potential. In this way, practitioners are benefitted from this new technology by knowing more about lasers and their illumination properties.

Examination of Formal Safety Management System Impact in a Liquefied Natural Gas Company

Peace Onya Ali , Oluwaseun Faremi , Maureen E. Wyse , Kayode O. Odeniyi , Andrew John , Olusanya E. Oludele

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 121-136
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/7319C

This study was aimed at examining the impact of a formal safety management system (SMS) in a liquefied natural gas company. A 5-point Likert questionnaire ranging from “strongly disagree to strongly agree” questions developed by Flins & Burns was used to evaluate workers’ perception to the impact of safety management system in the organisation. The OHSAS 18001 internal audit checklist was also used to assess the level of compliance of the organization to the requirements of the SMS. Secondary data was obtained from document reviews and safety reports of the case study.  The data was collated and subjected to descriptive statistics, t-test and row and column contingency(R&C) table to evaluate the relationship between safety performance and compliance. For compliance to SMS; General requirements, 91%; Health and Safety Policy, 95%; Planning, 93%, Implementation and Operation, 98%; Audit, 98%; and Management Review, 93%. The overall average level of compliance was 95%. 100 respondents participated in the questionnaire, 64 males and 36 females: 68 technical personnel and 32 nontechnical respondents. Descriptive analysis of employees’ perception resulted in; Safety satisfaction and feedback, 4.113; Training and competence, 4.182; Safety reporting and investigation, 4.212; Work Duties/Pressure, 3.989; Management commitment, 4.098; Safety communication, 4.171; and Emergency response and planning, 4.126. t-test indicated that there was no significant difference for perception of males and females, and perception of technical and non-technical employees since p > 0.05. R & C contingency table was used to evaluate the relationship between safety performance and safety compliance. The result showed that there is significant difference between safety compliance and safety performance since X2calc < X2tab. This outcome aligns with similar previous works at different case studies. Therefore, it is opined that the implementation of a formal Safety management system will continuously improve safety performance. Hence, the impact of a formal safety management system cannot be overemphasized. The practice of health and safety has evolved overtime, as a matter of common sense in several industries. However, this study opines that the implementation of a formal safety management system requirements is instrumental to a sustainable continuous improvement in organizational safety performance. The study therefore encourages organisations to consider the safety management system certification.

Monitoring the Environmental Impact Natural-technogenic Province of the Min-Kush (Kyrgyzstan)

Djenbaev B. M., Zholboldiev B. T. , Dzhamanbaeva Z. A. , Zhumaliev T. N. , Karmysheva U. J., Imataly K. Kaliskan , Zhalilova A. A.

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 137-164
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/6687C

The results of scientific and practical works in the uranium natural-technogenic province of Min-Kush in the high-mountainous territory of Kyrgyzstan are presented. The mountains of Kyrgyzstan are very rich in various types of minerals, more than 10 thousand mineral deposits are known, of which 1000 are considered promising. Mining of uranium ores on the territory of the republic started in the middle of the last year (1952) and was stopped in 1969. However, there is still a huge amount of uranium waste in the republic, a total of 20 mining and processing enterprises were closed, including 4 enterprises for mining and processing of uranium raw materials. In general, on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic there is a large number of radioactive sources (about 1200), including 31 tailing pits and 25 dumps - uranium production waste with the volume of 51.83 million m3.

Radioecological works were carried out in the Min-Kush uranium natural-technogenic province during and after remediation at the production site and tailings. Analysis of vertical profiles of gamma radiation exposure dose rate and the results of determining the specific activity of U-238, Ra-226 and Pb-210 in tailing material samples are presented. The results of radionuclide analysis in water samples from the Tuyuk-Su River and mine water in Min-Kush are presented. The radioecological assessment after covering (reclamation work) is given and a site map is made.  

Greening Regional Airports: A Vision for Carbon Neutral Infrastructure

Markus Meindl, Cor de Ruiter, Valerio Marciello, Mario Di Stasio, Karen Saavedra-Rubio, Alexis Laurent, Manuela Ruocco, Martin Maerz

Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Vol. 3, 1 January 2024, Page 165-201
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpstr/v3/1423G

This study provides an overview of the energy demand of a regional airport, divided into individual time horizons. The electrification of aircraft systems raises the question of whether airports will be among the largest electricity consumers in our infrastructure in the future. Sustainability and especially emission reductions are significant challenges for airports that are currently being addressed. The Clean Sky 2 project GENESIS addresses the environmental sustainability of hybrid-electric 50-passenger aircraft systems in a life cycle perspective to support the development of a technology roadmap for the transition to sustainable and competitive electric aircraft systems. This article originates from the GENESIS research and describes various options for ground power supply at a regional airport. Potential solutions for airport infrastructure with a short (2030), medium (2040), and long (2050) time horizon are proposed. In addition to the environmental and conservation benefits, switching from fossil fuels to sustainably produced fuels is also financially attractive for airports, airlines, and travelers. This analysis includes estimating the future energy demand per day, month, and year. In addition, the current flight plan based on conventional aircraft is adapted to the needs of a 50-PAX regional aircraft. The findings confirm that airports will require an enormous amount of electrical energy due to the electrification of air traffic.