Greener Synthesis of O, S, N-Nitrogen-Containing Heterocycles in Water, PEG, and Bio-Based Solvents
Current Perspectives on Chemical Sciences Vol. 11,
2 June 2021
The solvents used in chemistry are a fundamental element of the environmental performance of processes in corporate and academic laboratories. Their influence on costs, health safety, and nature cannot be neglected. Quantitatively, solvents are the most abundant constituents of chemical transformations; therefore, acting on solvents and replacing standard solvents with safer products can have a great ecological impact. However, not all green solvents are suitable for the wide scope of organic chemistry reactions. A second point to consider is that 50% of pharmaceutical drugs are nitrogen heterocycles compounds. It therefore appeared important to provide an overview of the more ecological methodologies for synthesizing this class of compounds. In this review, all publications since 2000 that describe green reactions leading to the formation of nitrogen heterocycles using safe solvents were considered. We chose water, PEG, and bio-based solvents for their negligible toxicity. The synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered aromatic nitrogen heterocycles using green reactions reported in the literature to date is described. We describe biologically based solvents that have been reported as valid alternatives in the synthesis of N-heterocycles, which are; Meglumine, Gluconic acid, Ethyl lactate and Lactic acid.
- Bio-based solvents
- O,S,N-heterocycles synthesis
- catalytic and greener methodology