Prof. Hamdy M Afefy
Department of Construction Engineering and Management, Pharos University, Alexandria, Egypt.

ISBN 978-93-5547-986-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-987-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/costr/v8

This book covers key areas of Science and Technology. The contributions by the authors include stepped spillway, skimming, nappe flow regime, professional education, distance learning, creative abilities, soft skills, e-learning, resource sharing, online teaching, higher education, COVID-19, food consumption, peroxidation products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, caramelization, internet of things, gadgets, adaptive algorithm, LMS algorithm, analog signal path, digital signal processing, analog filters, liquid chromatography, retention mechanism, protein drugs, preparative scale resolution, chromatographic cake technology, bioplastic, phycocolloids, optical injection, frequency switching, mode locking, hydration, hardening, structure formation, information interaction, nucleation, hereditary features, porosity, protonation, and hydroxylation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Science and Technology.


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Boundary of Transition Flow Regime on Stepped Spillways by Physical Modeling

Farzin Salmasi, John Abraham

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 1-17

In a stepped spillway, the spillway face is provided with a series of steps from near the crest to the toe. The energy dissipation caused by the steps reduces the required size of the energy dissipater which is generally provided at the toe of the spillway. Stepped spillways have been built in the past and there is interest in them because of significant cost savings. The purpose of this study is to determine the hydraulic conditions that govern ther transition flow regime. For this purpose, 11 physical models of stepped spillways were built with 15, 25, and 45 degree slopes and different step numbers from 3 to 50. The width of flumes for installing the stepped spillways were 50 and 25 cm. Results showed that dimensionless parameters h/l (spillway slope) and yc/h (critical depth to step height ratio) are effective at influencing the occurrence of a transition flow regime. Two boundaries that are important are the “upper limit for the nappe flow regime” and the “lower limit for the skimming flow regime”. Boundary defined in this study are recommended for future applications and design of hydraulic structures.

Distance Technologies of the Creative Abilities’ Development as the Component of the Process of Formation Soft Skills

Hanna Alieksieieva, Nataliia Kravchenko, Larysa Horbatiuk, Viktoriia Zhyhir, Olena Chernieha

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 18-39

The work is dedicated to the problem of developing the creative abilities of students as a component of soft skills. The model of formation of the creative professional potential of future specialists is proposed. To describe the conceptual model, the methodology of functional modeling within the graphical notation IDEF0 is used. For the construction of creative abilities during distance learning, it is advisable to use systems of education management, to use cloud-technologies, systems of videoconferences’ organization, and messengers. The experience of the formation of the creative professional potential of students of Berdiansk State Pedagogical University with the help of distance learning is described.

How to Realize E-learning Efficiently in Higher Education during COVID-19 Epidemic: Practices in 2020~2022

Shun Yao, Defu Li, Alula Yohannes , Hang Song, Jiying Li

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 40-52

During the three years of COVID-19 epidemic (2020~2022), the face-to-face classroom scene transforms to a network virtual space from time to time, and the construction of distance education and resource sharing platform becomes more and more important. In order to provide practical examples and referential strategies for the efficient use of various resources to achieve mixed teaching in the post epidemic era, the following paper comprehensively introduces the social needs, framework composition, main functions and expected objectives of the system, analyzes the existing main problems and development bottlenecks in combination with the teaching practices, and shares the experience of distance teaching through the actual applications. Currently, the two-level (college and university) public platforms shared by teachers and students were recognised as a possible resource for pertinent research and platform development.  Finally, a few "pocket experiments" were successfully conducted at students' homes with the help of teachers who were guiding them remotely. Information and communication technologies are anticipated to play an increasingly important role in the future during the epidemic or other crises involving global public health.

Within a space of three decades, after fast foods consumption became so rampant in southeastern Nigeria, there exists a conspicuous sharp increase in undetailed/unrecorded/undocumented health complications that increases the risk of various medical disorders. Those affected are made more susceptible to pathological conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, vascular inflammation, hematological complications and worst of it all untimely death. These have made it necessary to do in-depth study on any correlation between these health issues and intake of fast food as the underlying cause of these pathological conditions. The purpose of the current research is not only to determine the levels of lipid peroxidation products in most roasted and deep-fried fast foods eaten in southeastern Nigeria using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxide as bio-markers, but also to take measures towards minimizing/reducing the potential dangers via an increase in awareness of the health risks associated with consumption of highly oxidized fatty acids via intake of these roasted and ready-made deep-fried fast foods among the general public. These were achieved via extraction of lipid peroxidation products from both deep-fried and roasted fast food samples using different solvent mixtures, methanol:chloroform {1:2} and glacial acetic acid:water {1:1}; and lipid peroxidation level measured by determination of both lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated dienes concentrations by FOX-2 assay and a slightly modified method of Buege and Aust [1] respectively. According to our observation, deep-fried fast foods had much higher quantities of these lipid peroxidation by-products than roasted fast foods. Our observation shows that fried egg recorded the highest mean value of TBARS among fried food samples, but a non-significant decrease in comparison with already used frying oil, while the other samples exhibited varied values of TBARS in the increasing order of fried egg > plantain chips > Akara > yam chips>chin-chin > bonus > potatoes chips> doughnut > puff-puff. Furthermore, Suya meat had the highest concentration of TBARS among roasted foods, followed by ground nut and pork meat. When the various extraction solvents used in this study were compared, it was found that glacial acetic acid/water extracts extracted a significant concentration of conjugated dienes from roasted bread fruit, baked cake, and fried doughnuts, whereas methanol/chloroform extracts gave the highest extractive mean values of conjugated dienes for roasted bambara nut, groundnut, and suya meat.

Internet of Things (IoT): Definitions, Components, Characteristics and Applications

V. Dankan Gowda, Venkata Naga Rani Bandaru, A. Yasmine Begum, D. Palanikkumar, Amol Chandrakant Jadhav

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 68-79

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system that connects all physical devices to the web through switches, allowing them to exchange data. Web application development is advancing at a steady pace, and it is being used by a broad range of people in a variety of different fields and situations. To save human effort and make things easier, IoT often allows remote access to the existing system, which has been put up by different calculating institutions. Programed control of any gadget to get to the framework without human mediation is a unique IoT characteristic termed IoT. IoT, or the Internet of Things, refers to 'things' as a mixture of equipment components, programming information, and provided services. This device collects data from various devices from previous technological advances and exchanges it with other connected devices. IoT innovation can be portrayed as 'Web of Things', wherein this innovation is constructed dependent on the idea that all the ideal gadgets can be associated inside a particular system for sharing information and data with no manual intercession. The gadgets utilized for this can be isolated contingent to their capacity to send, get, and assemble information in the given system. IoT is obvious because of its remarkable properties that are, secure in nature, can be utilized on savvy gadgets, the capacity to interface with a system helps for the quicker network, etc. Thus IoT is a specialty innovation where heaps of work are going on and where the associations are attempting to computerize human exertion so the possibility of mistake will be negligible or zero. IoT will make things significantly simpler for people and associations with their machines to machine collaboration and network.

Algorithm for Adaptive Processing of High-speed Integrated Filters

Rajaram Jatothu, V. Dankan Gowda, Algubelly Yashwanth Reddy, Utkarsh Arun Avalekar, S. B. Manojkumar

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 80-92

The most popular adaptive algorithm for high-speed integrated filters today is the LMS algorithm, due primarily to its straightforward and robust digital hardware implementation. However, in analog adaptive filters, implementation of the LMS algorithm is neither straightforward nor robust. The hardware required to generate gradient information is cumbersome and power-hungry. The LMS algorithm’s accuracy is also hindered by the presence of dc offsets on the state and error signals. These considerations are the primary factors which presently limit the use of analog adaptive filters. This paper seeks to combine the advantages of digital adaptation algorithms with a high-speed analog signal path. The aim is to perform digital adaptation of analog filters and also several potential applications for digitally adaptive analog filters are presented. All are mixed-signal digital communications systems often including considerable dedicated digital signal processing hardware, usually integrated on the same die as the analog front end. In such systems analog circuit design is particularly challenging, so it is especially desirable to implement the adaptation algorithm digitally.

The purpose of the presented investigation is that how a short chromatographic column works and why there are more advantages from a chromatographic cake than that from a conventional long column in preparative scale. Based on the new principle of “steady-migration” of biopolymer separation in liquid chromatography (LC), A new approach termed “five-S” strategy is presented for fast, high-resolution separation of proteins on a preparative scale. The five-S strategy involves a Short column of very large diameter termed the chromatographic cake (or just cake). This is packed with very Small particles for protein separation under Small overloading per unit cross-Sectional area of the packed bed at a Suitably low linear velocity. The high density of the cake bed, which is packed in a direction perpendicular to that of the mobile phase flow, greatly reduces the protein band broadening. Using the chromatographic cake, the protein density per unit cross-sectional area of the cake bed decreases substantially, and protein separation that originally occurred under conventional nonlinear liquid chromatography conditions now proceeds under conditions similar to those of ideal linear liquid chromatography. The five-S strategy was tested by performing preparative-scale separation of standard proteins using a silica-based hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) packing at different mobile phase flow rates. In comparison to conventional columns, better resolution with simultaneously faster separation was achieved on the cake even under higher overload conditions.

Production of Bioplastic from Phycocolloids

Rukmini D. Potdar , Avanti P. Karande, Mahananda B. Gurav, Sneha M. Patil, Sandip S. Fundipalle, Mahadev S. Mhetre

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 110-119

The main aim of this study was to identify the potential use of agar (Phycocolloids) in the making of bio plastic. Biodegradable and edible materials from plants and animals, including peptides, polysaccharides, and lipids, are profitable alternatives to synthetic packaging films. Bioplastic is a type of plastic that is created entirely or primarily from polymer generated from biological sources like sugarcane, potatoes, or starch. It is either biobased or biodegradable, or it combines both qualities. A colloid made from seaweed is referred to as a phycocolloid; a colloid is a non-crystalline substance with very big molecules. Phycocolloids are therefore just seaweed gums. According to the findings of the current study, agar can be successfully employed to create bioplastic. The use of bioplastic is expanding quickly as a result of their undeniable advantages over conventional plastic. Bioplastic can be used in the packaging sector to create baby toys, mobile cases, pill and capsule capsules, and more.

Chaotic Dynamics for Laser Diode under Unidirectional and Mutual Optical Injection with Optoelectronic Feedback

Ayser A. Hemed, Rasha Salah Abbas

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 120-142

Nonlinear and chaotic dynamics for a continuous emission (CW) laser diode with a Fabry-Perot cavity are being investigated experimentally to develop a new chaotic transmitter system. Uni-directional and bi-directional optical injection configurations were constructed with and without optoelectronic feedback (OEFB) and even direct modulation. Another possibility is also investigated, where the injection is reversed to observe dynamics generated in the second laser diode (LD2). Accordingly, the first laser diode (LD1) receives optical injection from LD2, which is initially mixed with self-OEFB, and then, LD2, under OEFB, receives pure optical injection from LD1. Results indicate the generation of chaotic pulsation with mode hopping in the first configuration and mode-lock at a specific bias current level in the second one.

Under bi-directional optical injection, results show that the laser entered a new instability leading to a variety of more nonlinearities. One of them is the lasing mode shifting and switching. The ratio of OI was controlled by an optical attenuator and also OEFB by an RF attenuator. Mode hopping, multimode emission, mode lock, and chaotic behavior are all observed experimentally corresponding to operating conditions. The observed chaotic pulse linewidth was measured at 300 MHz, with the ability to be broader via changing detuning and injection ratio. The laser changed to emit in pulsation with a route to chaos status in which it has an FWHM of around 0.1GHz. Reversing injection led to linewidth enhancement with a very sharp FWHM, 1.5 kHz. Laser emission is perturbed due to mixed injection as if it works with OEFB, where the gain switches tend to drive the laser into pulsing states induced by that positive OEFB. For each achieved result, there exists an application, such as; chaos shifts keying, frequency mixing, and up-conversion to a new frequency to reduce the cost of high-speed electronics associated with optical communications.

On Some Peculiarities of Interaction between Cement and Water

Ju S. Sarkisov, N. P. Gorlenko, O. A. Zubkova, N. N. Debelova, T. S. Shepelenko

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 10 November 2022, Page 143-164

The paper discusses the most complex and poorly studied aspects of interaction of cement with water. Particular attention is paid to the earliest and latest stages of hydration and structure formation of binding system. It is shown that the induction periods of hydration and hardening are a multistage process including a pre-induction period and an induction period as such. Its role is decisive in the nucleation of new phase germs and the transfer of signs of the future structure from the supersaturated mortar to the cement stone. At the final stage of hardening, a capillary porous body is formed in the cement-water system. It is shown that the hardening process should be regarded as a peculiar phase inversion: water being a dispersion medium in the capillary-porous structure of the cement stone at first, becomes a dispersed phase. Particle dispersion and particle size distribution and pore size distribution are of particular importance. It has been shown that many aspects of interaction of cement with water have common nature with the processes taking place in geological and biological objects of natural systems. It makes possible to consider the mentioned processes in the spirit of convergence and divergence of sciences.