Dr. Natt Makul
Assistant Professor, Building Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Phranakhon Rajabhat University, Thailand.

ISBN 978-93-5547-899-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-5547-900-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/costr/v6

This book covers key areas of Science and Technology. The contributions by the authors include dam stability,  genetic algorithm, gravity dam, global optimum, stress analysis, vertical drops, air bubbles, energy dissipation, physical model, regression equation, stepped spillway, optimum size of step, skimming flow, chute geometry,  MANET, energy harvesting, shortest path route, high-performance liquid chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, soxhlet, e-assessment, academic integrity, examination malpractice, online classroom, fourth industrial revolution, graduate skillsets, quality assurance, face recognition, HC-05 bluetooth, huskylens, activated carbon, adsorption, and hexavalent chromium. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Science and Technology.


Media Promotion:


Computation of Optimal Cross Section of Gravity Dams Using Genetic Algorithms

Farzin Salmasi, John Abraham

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 1-23

An interactive method that involves a preliminary layout of the structure, followed by a stability and stress study, is used to construct gravity dams. This study presents a method to define the optimal cross section of gravity dams determined using a genetic algorithm. To solve the optimization task (minimize the cost of the dam), an optimization routine based on genetic algorithms (GAs) was implemented in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. It was found to perform well and GA parameters were optimized in a parametric study. Using the parameters found in the parametric study, the top width of an arbitrary gravity dam was found and compared to a gradient-based optimization method (classic method). The agreement between the two approaches was excellent. For an optimal dam cross section, the ratio of the dam base to dam height is \(\sim\) 0.85, and ratio of dam top width to dam height is \(\sim\) 0.13. This computational approach may provide calculations of the optimal top width for a wide range of gravity dam heights.

Energy Loss at the Base of a Free Straight Drop Spillway

Farzin Salmasi, John Abraham

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 24-42

A vertical drop or free overfall is a common feature in both natural and artificial channels. Natural drops are formed by river bed erosion while artificial drops are built in irrigation systems to reduce the channel slope to designed slope. Greater energy dissipation drops occur in stepped spillways. The greater energy dissipation is caused by mixing of the jet with the pool at the downstream end of each drop. As a result, it will be the cause of the reduction in the energy dissipater that is generally provided in toe of drops and stepped spillways. In this study, the energy dissipation in straight drops is investigated by fabricating physical models. Effective geometric and hydraulic parameters are determined and three drops with different heights were constructed from plexiglas. These physical models were installed in two existing flumes in the hydraulic laboratory at university of Tabriz, Iran. Several runs of physical models were performed to determine the essential parameters for determining energy dissipation. The results reveal that energy dissipation in drops is affected by drop height and discharge. Predicted relative energy dissipation varied from 10.0% (for yc/h=0.94) to 94.3% (for yc/h=0.02). Energy loss caused by a drop is mainly due to the mixing of the jet with the pool behind the jet that causes air bubble entrainment in the flow. A statistical model was developed to predict the energy dissipation in drops that reveal nonlinear correlation between effective parameters. Comparisons between this study and results of Moore, Rand, White, Rajaratnam and Chamani, showed that White's model overestimates the energy dissipation in drops and Rand's model underestimates the energy dissipation in drops. The others can predict the energy dissipation similar to the proposed statistical model. The length of the downstream stilling basin predicted by White is 20% smaller than the others.

Flow Characteristics of Skimming Regime Flow over Stepped Spillways with Attention to Optimum Step Size

Farzin Salmasi , John Abraham

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 43-61

On a spillway chute, a stepped design increases the rate of energy dissipation on the chute itself and reduces the size of the downstream energy dissipater. A study was conducted herein to gain a better understanding of the flow behavior in stepped chutes with a skimming flow. The work used a wide variety experimental facilities and large-size models obtained previously by other researchers. The present results yield a new and practical design procedure for stepped spillways with skimming flow. The design method includes some key issues not foreseen in prior studies. The outcomes are valid for a wide range of chute geometries and flow conditions typical of embankment chutes. Hydraulic-design charts for a stepped channel are provided. From these charts, the optimum number of step for maximum energy dissipation is determined that can reduce the size of a downstream energy dissipater. This procedure is easy to implement for designers provided parameters such as the optimum number of steps for maximum energy dissipation, the representative flow depth, the averaged velocity at the end of the stepped channel, height of the sidewall, and stilling basin type.

Research Developments and Review on Routing Methods for Energy in Mobile Networks

N. Shyam Sunder Sagar

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 62-70

MANET is a category of mobile nodes which forms a network individually without the help of any centralized administration. Such devices are battery operated, extending the battery lifetime has become an important goal. We need to make power aware efficient protocols for MANETs. Likewise all the nodes in mobile ad-hoc network perform the task of routing to setup network between various mobile nodes. The “death” of some of nodes, due to depletion of power-values may cease disconnection of systems in the MANET If a node moves out of the radio range of the other node, the link between them breaks another node this chapter describes the various methods of route and different methods used for selection of route for manet applications.

Application of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction Method for Extraction of 6-Gingerol in Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum

Herliati Rahman , Satrio Nur Prambudi, Wahyu Endranaka

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 71-82

Gingerol is a chemical compound found in red ginger that is used in pharmaceuticals as an analgesic. The Soxhlet extraction method is commonly used for gingerol separation, but it has a flaw. It necessitates a lengthy process with an unsatisfactory outcome. This research aims to study ultrasonic frequency's effect on increasing gingerol yield in the extraction process itself. Extraction times of 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes were studied as variables. Furthermore, the ultrasonic effect was observed with ultrasonic frequency variations of 40 and 50 kHz when compared to the solvent extraction method. This study used 70% (v/v) ethanol as a solvent and an operating temperature of 50 \(^{\circ}\)C as fixed variables. Furthermore, it used a rotary vacuum evaporator at a pressure of 350 mmHg to separate the resulting gingerol extract. To determine the total gingerol extract, the qualitative sample was analysed using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the quantitative sample was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Waters Alliance e2695 brand with X-Terra RP18 column 100 x 4.6 mm, five \(\mu\)m. The findings demonstrate that ultrasonic power had a significant impact on the outcomes acquired, with the highest yield being 24.71% at an ultrasonic frequency of 50 kHz and an extraction time of 120 minutes.

E-Assessment and Academic Integrity in Nigeria

Ifeoma Ethel Ezeabasili

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 83-97

E-assessment refers to the use of information and communication technology to evaluate students learning .It involves the use of computer to administer test and grade students performances. The use of e-assessment is applicable to both developed and developing economies. It is used in elementary school, distance learning and professional certification exams. The application is aimed at reducing the stress and challenges that comes with the traditional pen and paper. In spite of all these, there is a widespread perception that the departure from academic integrity is on the rise due to the introduction of information and communication technology into the classroom and the popularity of online classes, which have created new opportunities for ‘e-cheating’ The National Open University of Nigeria since its inception in 2002, has examined their students using the traditional method of pen and paper, however, the process has been saddled with a lot of problems leading to the inability of the university to release students results on time , the inability of some students to graduate in recorded time. These problems led to the introduction of e-assessment into National Open University of Nigeria. This chapter examines the antecedents that led to the introduction of e-assessment in Nigeria higher institutions of learning. It presented some basic concepts of e-assessment; origin and Development of E-assessment; Functions and advantages of e-assessment; constraints to E-assessment in Nigeria. It also discussed the origin of e-assessment and academic integrity in Nigeria; Origin and Development of Academic Integrity; e-assessment and Academic dishonesty. The chapter posits that the relationship between e-assessment and Academic Integrity is that E-assessment enhances Academic integrity, and concluded that e-assessment was introduced into Nigerian in 2010 to ease learning process, eliminate examination malpractices, accelerate the release of student’s results and promote academic integrity. However, the realization of these objectives in Nigeria is far-fetched due to some constraints like the human interferences, computer technology illiteracy among students in tertiary institutions, high cost of procuring and installing the gadgets required for e-learning. Despite all these challenges, e-assessment has impacted greatly on academic Integrity in Nigeria.

Impact of Quality Assurance in Delivering Fourth Industrial Revolution-ready Graduates

Shielilo R. Amihan

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 98-116

Strengthened Quality Assurance (QA) measures in the academe may produce graduates with the relevant fourth industrial revolution (FIRe)-ready skills of technology, language and human skills, cultural readiness, and ethical values. This quantitative, non-experimental study with 198 samples yields an achieved power of .99 for regression analysis of 10 QA areas as predictor variables.

The analysis revealed the re-engineering of the following QA areas: 1. institutional direction and targets, 2. learning facilitators, 3. teaching-learning processes, 4. learning resources, 5. laboratory set-up, 6. physical plant and facilities, 7. services to the learners, 8. community engagement and social actions, 9. organization and administration, and 10. knowledge innovation and management positively correlate to the development of the FIRe skillsets of the graduates. Additionally, the improved QA preparations in the directions and aims, educational resources, learner services, knowledge innovation and management, and greater degrees of external accreditation resulted in the production of graduates that were FIRe-ready. The study recommends restructuring QA blueprints to align with the evolving workforce demands of the FIRe landscape.

Development of Automated Attendance System Using Face Recognition

K. Pragathi, A. Spandana, Ch. Santosh Kumar

Current Overview on Science and Technology Research Vol. 6, 11 October 2022, Page 117-124

Attendance marking during a lecture in a classroom is not only  challenging but also a time-consuming task. There will always be a possibility of proxy attendance. It's proven to be difficult to track attendance using traditional ways. In recent years, common biometrics like fingerprints are used to overcome the problem of automatic attendance marking. Rather than using traditional methods, the suggested solution intends to create an automated system that uses facial recognition technology to record the student's attendance. The primary goal of this project is to make the attendance tracking and management system more efficient, time-saving, simple, and straight-forward. Face recognition techniques will be used here to identify faces. The processed image will then be compared to the existing stored record and attendance will be recorded accordingly in the database.

The presence of heavy metals in aquatic systems has developed into a significant issue. The development of novel methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated water has received a lot of attention as a result. One of the most efficient technologies for removing harmful heavy metal ions is the adsorption technique. Metals that are toxic to human beings and ecological environments include copper, chromium, lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel, iron, and cobalt. One of the main metal ions that pollute the environment is hexavalent chromium, which is found in wastewater from the majority of different industrial sectors. For the elimination of hexavalent chromium, a number of traditional physical and chemical treatment procedures have been published in the literature. However, these procedures are costly, energy-intensive, and produce by-products that are toxic and carcinogenic. In a recent study, the effectiveness of activated carbon made from Butea monosperma bark in removing Cr(VI) from contaminated water was examined in relation to many parameters, including the impact of pH, the dosage of the adsorbent, the contact time, and the starting metal ion concentration. The optimal pH level, equilibrium pH=6.5, was required for hexavalent chromium uptake. With increasing contact duration, Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution increases, and equilibrium was reached after 150 minutes. Additionally, there was an increase in Cr(VI) removal with an increase in adsorbent dosage. The maximum adsorption of Cr(VI) (96%) was examined at 5.0 g/l of adsorbent dose. The upsurge in the initial concentration of Cr(VI) decreases the percent removal of Cr(VI). This investigation established that the freshly created activated carbon from the bark of Butea monosperma may be employed as a successful adsorbent to remove hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution that is both less expensive and energy-intensive.

The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the current occurrence as well as taxonomical studies of the arboreal members of the Anacardiaceae family. Within Jammu and Kashmir region, Jammu province enjoys a generous floristic diversity after Kashmir. Over the course of the previous 30 years, numerous taxonomic studies dealing with the floristic diversity of this area have been carried out. The Pir-Panchal region of Jammu and Kashmir, which includes the Poonch district, has a distinctive landscape and a range of temperatures. This area has been able to preserve a high level of biodiversity despite these notable changes. There are some plant groupings that have evaded researchers' notice, and the Anacardiaceae family is one of those groups.  The district has been tracking the occurrence of these plant species with varied ethnobotanical purposes for several decades, in both sub-tropical and temperate zones. There are eight species in five genera that make up this angiospermic arboreal flora group, which is found at elevations between 988 and 3004 m. There are one shrub and seven trees, one evergreen and seven deciduous species, as well as two native and six exotic species. Pistacia and Rhus, two of the plant genera, recorded two and three species, respectively, while Cotinus, Lannea, and Mangifera each recorded one species.