Prof. John Yahya I. Elshimali
Professor of Pathology and Oncology, UCLA School of Medicine & Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, California, USA.

ISBN 978-81-19039-28-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19039-24-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cops/v4

This book covers key areas of Pharmaceutical Science. The contributions by the authors include nanoparticle, entrapment efficiency, targeted drug release, controlled drug release, hypertension, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, heart failure, beta blockers, antioxidant, anthelmintic, self-medication, drug abuse, self-care, substance abuse, antibiotic usage, quinazoline derivatives, antimicrobial activity, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, leishmaniasis, pharmacokinetics, and physicochemical properties. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Pharmaceutical Science.


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Solid Lipid Nanoparticle: Technique of Drug Designing

Swapnil S. Patil, Rohan D. Patil, Prakash C. Chavan, Nisha M. Jagtap, Shashikant S. Upadhye, Harshad P. Khade, Suraj J. Patil

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 1-11

This chapter focuses on a comprehensive review and detailed study of nanoparticles. Especially Solid lipid nanoparticles are rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery, clinical medicine and research as well as in other varied sciences. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for secondary and tertiary levels of drug targeting. Hence, herbal solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence have attracted wide attention of researchers. Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. In this review we focused on solid lipid nanoparticle and highlighted advantages and disadvantages. Methods of preparation of solid lipid nanopartcile are also briefed to introduce its complete review and steps.

Safety and Efficacy of Selective Anti-Hypertensive Drugs in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases: An Observational Study

R. E. Ugandar , Umadevi Iluru, Mariamma Bethe, C. Bhargava Reddy, A. Sai Keshava Reddy, Kiran C. Nilugal, Nagashekhara Molugulu , Venkata Ramana Baru, K. Anusha

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 12-26

The study was conducted to determine the safest and most effective drug among various categories of anti-hypertensive drugs to treat hypertension in patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is a condition with persistent elevation of Blood Pressure in arteries. It is the second leading cause of death. The complex interaction of genes and environmental factors results in hypertension. Severe headache, drowsiness, vision problems, nosebleed, fatigue, and confusion are among the symptoms. It can cause a variety of cardiovascular problems, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. The treatment of Hypertension can be done by Anti-Hypertensive Drugs which include Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockers, Beta Blockers, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, etc. The study involved a sample size of 220 out of which 100 were Myocardial Infarction patients,100 were coronary artery disease patients and 20 were Heart Failure patients. Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockers, Beta Blockers, and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors were the antihypertensive drugs chosen for the study. Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockers were prescribed to 31 Myocardial Infarction patients, 31 coronary artery disease patients, and 8 Heart Failure patients. Beta Blockers were prescribed to 58 patients with myocardial infarction, 58 patients with coronary artery disease, and 7 patients with heart failure. Angiotensin Converting.Enzyme Inhibitors were prescribed to 10 Myocardial Infarction patients,10 Coronary Artery Disease patients, and 5 Heart Failure patients. The study revealed an outcome in which Beta Blockers were observed to be the drugs with maximum efficacy and maximum safety.

Phytoconstituents of Vitex negundo may be an Effective Alternative in Parasitic Infection in Humans

Sibaram Paria, Subhasish Mondal

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 27-33

This present study was performed to evaluate an effective alternative over present medication against parasitic infection in human. Vitex negundo (Family: Verbenaceae) is a useful drugs in Ayurveda and extensively used by the tribal people. The phytochemical screening of Vitex negundo (leaves &bark) extract  showed  the presence of phenolics and flavonoids, those are responsible for antiviral, antibacterial, anti allergic, antihypertensive, antiarrythmic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory effects in mammals [1,2,3]. Our present studies was done on Pheretima posthuma model (Indian earthworm)to find out antiprotozoal effect).Three concentrations 10,20 & 40 mg/ml extracts of V.negundo (leaves and bark) were used for this study which involved the determination of time of paralysis (vermifuge) and time of death (vermicidal activity) of the worms, where the concentration of 40 mg/ml showed a significant anthelmintic activity. Observations were comparable with the standard drug at concentration of 10mg/ml.of piperizine citrate. Although more chemical as well as clinical studies are necessary to exhibits proven its potentiality to become of important pharmacological interest.

Self-medication Practice: A Way Forward

H. Mythri

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 34-45

Medications are a critical tool in public health practise. Since the 1980s, self-medication (SM) is of prime public health importance as the World Health Organization, changed some prescription drugs to be sold over the counter to reduce the burden on health-care professionals. Each drug has its own advantages and disadvantages. As a result, they must always be used with caution. Given this, a recent trend in surveying the prevalence of SM has enhanced. Even the addictions are considered primarily as a kind of self-medication, which can relive anxiety or pain temporarily, but affects the lives and health of both the addicted and their loved ones. Hence, this review critically evaluated the studies to put light on the basic concept of SM.

Series of 7-chloro-3-[substituted (amino/phenyl amino)]-2-phenyl quinazolin-4(3H)-one/thione derivatives and 1-(7-chloro-4-oxo/-2-phenylquinazoline-3 (4H-yl)) substituted urea derivatives were synthesized and characterised The reaction proceeds through the intermediate 7-chloro-2-phenyl-4H-benzo[d] [1, 3] oxazin-4-one. Synthesized compounds were characterised from infrared (IR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectra (m/z) and elemental analysis. By using the agar diffusion cup plate method, tail immersion method, and carrageenan-induced paw oedema method, respectively, the antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory efficacy was examined. Based on the screening data of the new quinazoline derivatives, five compounds are found to be effective with antimicrobial activity. Five compounds exhibited good analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

Miltefosine Nanoparticles against Leishmaniasis: Past, Present and Future

Parag Ghosh, Subhasish Mondal, Anirbandeep Bose

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 74-87

Miltefosine (MF), an alkyl phospholipid developed initially to treat breast cancer, is a highly effective treatment for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that is the world's second leading cause of parasitic death after malaria.MF has dose-limiting gastrointestinal side effects in patients, and its penetration through lipophilic barriers is lowered. This paper provides an overview of the drug MF, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and the various nanocarriers used. It comprehensively reviews the most recent published literature on different techniques for increasing the bioavailability of MF for the treatment of leishmaniasis. In recent years, nanomedicine has emerged at the forefront of nanotechnology, creating high expectations in the biomedical field. Researchers are developing novel nanoparticles for diagnostic applications using imaging technology and treatment applications using drug delivery technologies. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), a porous material, have sparked interest due to their appealing physicochemical properties and advantageous morphological properties.

Evaluation of Hepatotoxicity of Mallotus Philippensis against CCl4 and ATT-Induced Rats

T. Muthuramu, Sujith Thomas, T. Rajkumar

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 88-97

Mallotus philippensis (Mp), also known as kamala in India, is a large woody multipurpose medicinal tree in the Euphorbiaceae family. Mp has many activities, including skin problems, bronchitis, antifungal, worm infestation (tapeworm), eye disease, cancer, diabetes, and diarrhoea. As a result, the current study sought to assess the hepatoprotective potential of Mp methanolic fruit extract. The hepatoprotective activity of CCl4 was investigated using a 1:1 ratio of liquid olive oil to body weight and ATT (isoniazid 7.5 mg/kg, rifampicin 10 mg/kg, and pyrazinamide 35 mg/kg b.w.) induced models. To assess the toxicity, an acute toxicity study and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted. After oral administration of the methanolic fruits extract at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight, rats showed no toxicity profile. The extract of Mp was given in two doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Biochemical parameters were reduced significantly (p0.001) when compared to the control. The presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenoids was discovered during phytochemical screening of the fruit extract. It can be concluded that the hepatoprotective activity of Mallotus philippensis is primarily due to the presence of high-value compounds such as the phenolic group, which is the plant's main content.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition evidenced by significant cognitive dysfunction.  The state of cognitive impairment is made worse by increased levels of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is crucial in the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Siddha system is an ancient traditional system of medicine that treats many chronic ailments and neurological disorders. Muthu parpam is one of the herbo-marine Siddha drugs that is indicated for neurocognitive dysfunction and psychiatric illness. The primary goal of this present study was to evaluate the acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition of Muthu parpam.

AChE activity was evaluated using a modified 96-well microplate assay based on Ellman’s method. Physostigmine (5, 10, 20, and 40 µg/ml) was used as the positive control.

According to the findings of this study, the test drug Muthu Parpam was effective in inhibiting the AChE enzyme at the specified concentration in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum percentage inhibition of about 71.68% was observed at 500µg/ml when compared to that of the Physostigmine, a known AChE inhibitor with a maximum inhibition of 84.87% at the concentration of 40µg/ml.

As a result, this preliminary screening has demonstrated the efficacy of Muthu parpam in the management of Alzheimer disease via AChE inhibition potential.

An Overview on Clinical Implications of Vitamin D in Oral Diseases

Deepa Jatti Patil

Current Overview on Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4, 20 January 2023, Page 108-120

Systemic health can be evident in one's oral health. The numerous dietary deficits have an impact on oral health in addition to the systemic health. Worldwide, vitamin D insufficiency (VDD) is a common condition. Vitamin D (VD) has a significant impact on oral tissues and odontogenesis in addition to being necessary for skeletal growth in both childhood and maturity. VDD affects oral health in a number of ways, from childhood to maturity. While supplementing with VD has good effects both during and after pregnancy, VD can have a negative impact on the oral health of the mother and child. Severe VDD in children can hinder tooth mineralization, leading to enamel and dentin abnormalities, and predisposing individuals to caries. VDD has a fairly high frequency of periodontitis and In VDD, periodontitis is remarkably common and has effects on both systemic and oral health. VDD is a common occurrence in oropharyngeal malignancies. This chapter emphasises the biological significance of VD and its receptor in oral diseases, as well as the impact on oral health and potential future efforts for targeted therapy.