Editor(s)
Dr. Huan Yu
Professor,
School of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, China.

ISBN 978-93-91473-26-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-34-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7

This book covers key areas of environment and earth science. The contributions by the authors include binding of protein, AFM Topography, IR Second derivative, copper deficiency, anatomy, hibiscus, morphology, micro-climate, urbanization, thermal comfort, Rayman model, fish diversity, aviation, environmental impact, noise pollution, emissions, environmental management, climate change, paleo-climatic condition, geological time, atmospheric variation, greenhouse effect, biomass, co-generation systems, distributed electricity generation, fuel cells, hotels, renewable energies, solar energy, wind energy, climate change, energy efficient hotel buildings, nano activated carbon, rice husk, adsorption isotherm, kinetic models, limnology, vulnerability, phytoplankton biomass, reforestation, syn-collisional granite, anthropogenic activities, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, degradation, ecological restoration, revegetation. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment and earth science.

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### Chapters

##### Hydrogenated Diamond like Carbon (HDLC) is Good Solid Support for Binding of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Study of its Adsorption Properties

Hari Shankar Biswas

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 1-7
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/3110F

In this book chapter I even have mentioned however will we have a tendency to develop a metal particle sensing element supported BSA with HDLC solid support to sight and take away inorganic As (III), Cu (II), Pb (II) from water like fishing by golf shot system. BSA was immobilized via Dopamine onto the HDLC (named as BD-HDLC) surface having high loading capability of proteins with no conformal modification and having adsorption. These BD-HDLC samples, one by one was immersed within the 50ml 1x10-5 M metal ions resolution in Tris buffers at pH 6.5, for two hour at temperature, beneath continuous slow shaking conditions employing a magnetic stirrer. The metal ions treated BD-HDLC film was rinsed by ultrapure water and dried with Nitrogen. we've got studied that BD-HDLC surface shows high binding matter activity to the potential binding site of Cu2+, Pb2+, and As3+. in addition, BD-HDLC-Cu2+, BD-HDLC-Pb2+ and BD-HDLC-As3+ complexes may be accustomed study their individual interactions with one another. Thus, we have a tendency to demonstrate that wonderful BD-HDLC may be used as a metal particle sensing element at the higher than fastened hydrogen ion concentration upto 2X10-5 M concentration.

##### Anatomy of Leaf Epidermis and Petiole of Two Selected Species of Hibiscus: An experimental Investigation

O. F. Olotuah

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 8-12
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11317D

In a laboratory experiment, the anatomy of the leaf epidermis and petiole of two Hibiscus species was studied through staining of cut sections and microscope visualization. The experiment found changes in morphology between the two species investigated. The foliar anatomy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Abelmoschus esculentus was studied, as well as differences in the morphologies of the petiole in the proximal region and the number and arrangement of the petiole's distal end. Medicinally, hibiscus has been taken internally for the treatments of various forms of and astringents effects when used typically. As a result, the presence, distribution, and quality of crystals on the adaxial and abaxial epidermal surfaces of the two species revealed differences between H. sabdariffa and A. esculentus.

##### Determining the Impact of Microclimatic Variables on Human Comfort; A Case Study of Akure Urban Environment, Nigeria

D. B. Alaigba, O. O. Fabiyi, O. S. Akinnawo

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 13-23
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/3329F

This study involved the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) to examine variation of physiologic comfort of the people living in Akure urban environment using physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index. PET value was generated from both micro-climatic parameters and thermo-physiological data measured, using Rayman model because of its ability to generate mean radiant temperature and PET that are useful in thermo-physiological heat balance model. It also examined the responses from sampled population across different land uses, which formed the main objective of the study: that is, to analyze the spatial pattern of human comfort using physiological equivalent temperature index across different land use types in the study area. Result showed that thermal heat stress are found spatially and temporally (6:00; 12:00 and 18:00 local standard time, LST) within the study area as high as (41-55) °C due to different activities in each of the land uses studied. Result also indicated that many of the respondents were yet to have an understanding about thermal stress and its effects. The recommendation from this study is that data should be measured during days of dry season and improvement should be made in the area of tree planting and urban greenery.

##### Recent Study of Diversity Status of Fishes in Mauns and Chaurs of Samastipur, N. Bihar

Kumari Sushma Saroj, Sanjeev Kumar Vidyarthi

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 24-30
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11574D

Extensive field survey and fish sampling was done to assess the abundance and distribution of fishes in flood plain wetlands specially mauns and chaurs in Samastipur district of N.Bihar. Wetlands are important features in the landscape that provide numerous beneficial services for people and for fish and wildlife. A total of 43 species from 31 genera, 18 families and 8 orders were reported. The survey result showed that among the total fish species collected, Order Cypriniformes held a major portion of the district’s fish fauna. Fish of the Family Cyprinidae was the most abundant (37.2% of the total fish species), followed by the Family Channidae (9.3%) & Bagridae. As far as conservation status is concerned the percentage of fish under the threatened category is almost up to 25.5% i.e. 2.32% endangered, 2.32% near threatened and 20% vulnerable of the total collected fish species while status of 58.13% was Lower risk near threatened. A large number of them have edible as well as aquarium species value.

##### An Overview on Environmental Management in Aviation

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 31-43
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11732D

Air transportation is an essential contributor to the health and well-being of the global economy. Aviation contributes to the quality of life – allowing us to visit friends and relatives, to travel, to experience new places, to shrink the world. Moreover, the aviation industry provides 56 million direct, indirect, and induced jobs worldwide. On the other hand, aviation affects the environment in many ways: people living near airports are exposed to aircraft noise; aircraft engines emit greenhouse gases and other pollutants to the atmosphere; large amounts of energy and water are consumed for the passenger needs and great volumes of waste are produced; streams, rivers, and wetlands may be exposed to pollutants discharged in storm water runoff from airports and many species of plants and animals are expatriated from the vicinity of airports. These negative externalities have been acknowledged during the last decades and the aviation industry is taking mitigation measures at a growing pace. National and international authorities, aviation institutions, aircraft manufacturers, airlines and airports issue advisory documents and manuals, establish environmental standards, apply new technologies and adopt environmental management systems to achieve environmentally-friendly operations in multiple dimensions: noise, air and water quality; energy consumption, waste production and biodiversity preservation. This chapter offers a comprehensive overview of the adverse environmental impact connected with air transportation and the corrective measures adopted by the aviation industry to mitigate this impact.

##### Determining the Atmospheric Variation and Future Climate Change: An Approach Based on Paleoclimate Studies

Vinay Kumar Pandey

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 44-52
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11774D

After the industrial revolution in 18th century, Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has been increases rapidly and predicted the impact of global warming.  Atmosphere is made up of various gasses and overall compositions of gasses are constant for the development of the ecosystem. Minor variation in the atmospheric composition, impacted the Earth weather and climate pattern. As increase in CO2 and other greenhouse gases absorbed the sun radiation and increase the temperature of earth.  During the Paleo-climatic studies it was observed that climate change happened several times in geological past. Atmospheric concentration varies due to various natural reasons. The CO2 concentration was much higher and oxygen was very low during early atmospheric condition. The concentration of CO2 were varies from 7000 part per million (PPM) to 350 PPM, Oxygen (O2) varies 1% to 35%, sea level 450 m high to (-)50 m low from present sea level and Earth average temperature varies between 29°C to 11°C. Sun brightness was varying 95% to 100% compared to present. Earth had faced various warm and cold phases during the geological past. Presently we are (human) living in small time cycle of Earth and its need of study regarding the future climate of earth. Regarding this, trying to discuss Paleo-climatic variation throughout the Geological time, affecting factors and observed that average atmospheric concentration of CO2, O2, Earth’s average temperature and sea level was much higher than present level. Based on observed data, prepared the impact of CO2 & O2 on flora, fauna & natural disaster. Also prepared the line diagram and suggested that atmospheric concentration of CO2, O2, Earth’s average temperature and sea level would be increased naturally in future and affect the ecosystem by various natural way.

##### Estimating the use of Distributed Electricity Generation Technologies in Tourism Industry

Ioannis S. Vourdoubas

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 53-63
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11864D

Distributed electricity generation technologies have increasing applications worldwide in various sectors due to their environmental and economic benefits. The objective of the current study is to investigate the application of these technologies using either fossil fuels or renewable energies in the hotel industry stating their characteristics, advantages and drawbacks. Various distributed electricity generation technologies, including co-generation of heat and power systems, are examined. Some of them are using renewable energies like solar energy, wind energy and biomass for electricity generation. Others are related with various co-generation systems including fuel cells. Many hotels require almost equal amounts of heat and electricity in their daily operations. Co-generation technologies have the advantage that they can cover almost all of their requirements in both electricity and heat. Some distributed electricity generation technologies including solar photovoltaic energy, co-generation systems, wind turbines and fuel cells are already used in hotels. Their energy efficiency varies in the range of 10% to 90%. Technologies using renewable energies generate carbon-free electricity while others fueled by natural gas generate electricity with low carbon emissions. Each technology has advantages and drawbacks while the possibility of using each technology depends on hotel’s characteristics as well as on the local availability of renewable energy resources. The results of the present study are important in hotel industry since they indicate the possibility of using the environmentally friendly distributed electricity generation technologies for covering their electricity as well as, in some cases, their heating requirements reducing their carbon footprint due to energy use and increasing their energy and environmental sustainability.

##### Removal of Dyes by using Rice Husk as Agricultural Solid Waste Adsorbent: Experimental investigation

Sara G. Abd-elnaeem, Azza. I. Hafez, Rania M. Sabry, T. E. Shakinas

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 64-79
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/10606D

In batch adsorption tests, Rice Husk (RH) Nano Activated Carbon (NAC) was employed to remove methylene blue (MB) and black B (BB) colours from synthetic solutions. For the two dyes of varying concentrations (50-300 mg/l), the influence of several operational parameters were tested, including pH (1-11), contact time (15-75 minutes), and temperatures (30-600C).  The high adsorption capacity was achieved at 30°C and pH 3 for MB and pH 11 for BB. After 60 minutes, the adsorption equilibrium was reached. Adsorption isotherms were determined, and the results were examined using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were both advantageous for MB dye, whereas Langmuir was only favourable for BB dye. The researchers looked at two kinetic models: pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetics. For both colours, the uptake rate of the NAC adsorbate obeyed a pseudo second order kinetic model, according to the findings.

##### Determining the effects of Climate Change on Water Quality of Pátzcuaro and El Sol Lakes in Mexico

González-Villela Rebeca, Banderas Tarabay Alfonso Guillermo, Sánchez Chávez José Javier, Bravo Inclán Luis Alberto

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 80-98
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11565D

The comparative study of the precipitation and temperature of Pátzcuaro meteorological stations (070 and 16087) in the periods 1921-1960 (initial period; 39 years of records) and 1973-2007 (posterior period; 34 years of records) indicated a change in the climate in accordance with the Köppen classification. In addition, the Nevado de Toluca Station (15062) for 1964-1985 (initial period; 21 years of records) and 1986-2008 (posterior period; 22 years of records) also show these climatic changes. The box plots for precipitation, evaporation, observed temperature, minimum and maximum of the air, Student's “t” test, regression analysis and linear correlation indicated significant changes in time at p $$\le$$ 0.05 for both lakes. Likewise, the Student’s “t” test, regressions and correlations in the water quality records from 2006 to 2011 for Pátzcuaro Lake, indicated significant changes in some physicochemical variables, due to agricultural, livestock, forestry, fishing, tourism, trade and cyanobacterial blooms. In El Sol Lake the physicochemical changes over time were related to tourism, livestock activity and phytoplankton biomass; changes associated with anthropic and climatic influence in both lakes throught changes in the meteorological variables. For Pátzcuaro and El Sol lakes a decrease in maximum depth, surface area, length and width were associated with an increase in turbidity, nutrients and an increase in phytoplankton biomass and climate change between the initial and posterior periods, due to the change in the heat balance of water through variation in air temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evaporation. A management plan (reforestation, construction of wetlands, water lily harvest, regulation of agricultural activities, domestic, urban, tourist and industrial waste), it is recommended as appropriate for each lake ecosystem.

##### Provenance and Geological Setting of Syn-collisional Pan-African Granite in the Northern Part Birnin Gwari Schist Belt in NW Nigeria

Kehinde Oluyede, Urs Klötzli

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 99-124
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/3208F

Syn-collisional granite in the northern part of the Birnin Gwari schist belt was studied to determine its provenance and geologic setting in order to contribute further to the understanding of the geodynamic evolution of Nigeria Schist belts. It consists dominantly of granite and lesser granodiorite and quartzolite. Petrographic and geochemical data revealed three granite groups: the biotite-hornblende granite (quartzolite - BHG); the biotite granite (BG) and the biotite-muscovite granite (BMG). The rocks generally have calc-alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline affinities, and calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic, peraluminous and ferroan and magnesian geochemistry. They are characterized by LILE enrichment, high LREE fractionation factor [(La/Yb) (6.74 to 45.14] with weak to moderate negative Eu (Eu/Eu* = 0.38 to 0.62) and strong negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies. Variation in the behavior of lithophile elements (Ba, Sr and Rb) revealed diverse granite trend such as “high and low Ba-Sr”; “normal”, “anomalous” “strongly differentiated” and “granodiorite and quartz diorite” granite. Their display of similar trace elements and REE patterns suggest they are cogenetic. Major and trace element data indicate differentiation of a mafic magma and partial melting of crustal components inherited from shale-greywacke and quartzose sedimentary protoliths in volcanic arc and post collisional settings. The field and geochemical characteristics of this granite suggest that they are similar to other granites in schist belts in other parts of Nigeria, forming the lateral continuation of the same Pan-African magmatic belt.

##### Exploring the Potential Influence of Weather Patterns and Anthropogenic Activities on Biodiversity and Disease Burden in Uganda

Fredrick G. Kabbale, Martha A. Kaddumukasa

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 125-135
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/3061D

This study was aimed at exploring the potential impact of weather patterns and human activities on biodiversity and disease burden in Uganda. Changes in weather patterns and anthropogenic activities are evident in Uganda and are posing a serious threat to the country’s natural resources, biodiversity and health, as well as the social and economic development. Changes have been predicted to continue in the form of higher temperatures and inter-annual rainfall variability. Emergence and re-emergence of pests and diseases, and increasing frequency of severe floods will continue presenting social and economic hardships. Loss of plant mass due to reduced rainfall and high temperatures, promoting desertification will disturb the symbiotic relationship between plants and animals including insects. Some species of plants and animals may suffer extinction or change in locations and/or behaviour. Controlled anthropogenic activities, enforcement of existing policies and regulations on sustainable use of ecosystem resources, awareness raising to all stakeholders, strengthening institutional capacity to design and implement adaptation and mitigation strategies and improved monitoring of weather patterns and biodiversity are recommended.

##### Occurrence and Distribution of Mycorrhiza in Industrial Areas of Kota, Rajasthan, India

Suresh S. Rajpurohit, Poonam Jaiswal

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 136-145
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/3930F

Arbascular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ecologically important for most vascular plants because they benefit plant growth and survival. The present study was conducted with an objective to comparative assessment of AMF diversity in disturbed and undisturbed soil in Kota, Rajasthan, and their role in ecological restoration of industrial waste disposal sites and degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples from four different sites; one natural soil (undisturbed soil) and three industrial waste disposal sites (disturbed sites) were collected, AMF were identified, and spore density was calculated. Decrease in overall spore density in industrial waste disposal sites as compared to the undisturbed site shows that degraded soil properties have a negative impact on the mycorrhizal association, whereas an increase in spore density of some mycorrhiza species in disturbed sites indicates the possibilities of selection of host plant for revegetation in restoration efforts. The native leguminous plant with high to very high level of VAM colonization can be used in the restoration of degraded lands.

##### Addressing the Soil Infertility Conundrum through Agroforestry: Empirical Evidence from Cameroon

Azembouh Roshinus Tsufac, Nyong Princely Awazi, Martin Ngankam Tchamba

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 7, 7 August 2021, Page 146-174
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ciees/v7/11772D

Agricultural productivity depends largely on the fertility of the soil. However, in recent years, soil infertility has been the trend across the world driven mainly by climate change and poor agricultural practices. In sub-Saharan Africa in general and Cameroon in particular, soil infertility is a major stumbling block to the growth of the agricultural sector. It was within this backdrop that this study was carried out to ascertain the role that agroforestry can play towards enhancing soil fertility in agricultural systems in south western Cameroon. Both biophysical and socio-economic data were collected and analyzed using Excel 2013 and SPSS 17.0 through descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that the main constraints to crop productivity were inaccessibility to improved planting materials (100%) and little or no control of stress factors like soil infertility (100%). Farmers made use of different types of agrochemicals with the most common being insecticides and fungicides. Three main agroforestry systems namely agrosilvicultural (93%), agrosilvopastoral (70%) and silvopastoral (31%) systems were practiced by farmers. The most common indicators of soil infertility identified by farmers were decline in crop yields (100%), rotting of tubers (100%) and wilting of crop stems (100%). The most common practices used to counter soil infertility were agro-chemicals, fowl droppings, improved planting seeds, erosion controlled farming, horizontal bunds or ridges on steep terrain, and agroforestry. The main impacts of soil infertility on farmers were difficulties in feeding, difficulties attending to social needs of children and the family, and financial difficulties. Farmers’ vulnerability to the adverse effects of soil infertility were exacerbated by high prices of inputs, low prices of farm produce, poor seeds/planting materials and bad roads. Live fences and scattered trees on croplands were the two most common agroforestry practices of farmers confronted with soil infertility. Analysis of different soil parameters (N, P, K and others) showed that scattered trees on croplands contributed more towards improving soil fertility which could be attributed to the diverse nature of the tree species found in the system and the dispersed nature of the trees on the entire farmland. Based on these findings, we recommend that more farmers adopt the practice of scattered trees on croplands in order to improve the fertility of their farmlands. Policy makers should also put in place favourable policies which encourage the practice of agroforestry.