Dr. Mustafa Turkmen
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science & Arts, Giresun University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-91473-65-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-68-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ciees/v6

This book covers key areas of environment and earth science. The contributions by the authors include electron radiation belt, secular geomagnetic variation, mid-latitude aurora, tree line shift, climate change, regeneration modes, coefficient of linear extensibility, potential of linear extensibility, geometric factor, isotropy, lithospheric plates, plate tectonics, carbon cycle, biodiversity, extinction, photosynthesis, photorespiration, ecological compensation point, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, orogenic period, geo synclynal period, heavy metals, blue swimming crab, shrimp biodiversity,  autoclaving, sprouting, thermal energy, earth’s expansion, mantle, pseudo-fluid geosphere, inner core, reverse gravity, remote sensing, floodplain, deposited sediment, bioremediation, contaminated soils, bacterial species, petroleum products, exhaust emissions, health hazards, LHR engine, fuel performance, exhaust emissions. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment and earth sciences.


Media Promotion:


Study on the Outer Radiation Belt Location in the 23–24 Solar Cycles

Alexei V. Dmitriev

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 1-20

Within the last two solar cycles (from 2001 to 2020), the location of the outer radiation belt (ORB) was determined using NOAA/Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite observations of energetic electrons with energies above 30 keV. It was found that the ORB was shifted a little (~1 degrees) in the European and North American sectors while in the Siberian sector, ORB was displaced equatorward by more than 3 degrees. The displacements corresponded qualitatively to the change of geomagnetic field predicted by the IGRF-12 model. However in the Siberian sector, the model has a tendency to underestimate the equatorward shift of ORB. The shift became prominent after 2012 that might be related to a geomagnetic jerk occurred in 2012 – 2013. The displacement of ORB to lower latitudes in the Siberian sector can contribute to an increase in the occurrence rate of mid-latitude auroras observed in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Treeline advance during the past 100 years was assessed by repeat in situ measurement at 14 locations distributed along the entire Swedish Scandes, c. 800 km from south to north. Concerned species were mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). Treeline was narrowly defined as the highest elevation with trees, at least 2 m tall. In order to elucidate the full effect and power of climate change on the treeline area, focus is on sites with the most extensive treeline shifts, according to prior regional surveys. Thereby, local constraints (topoclimate) were minimized. Betula. Picea and Sorbus accomplished treeline rise predominantly by phenotypic height growth increment of old-established krummholz, while Pinus responded by establishment and growth of new specimens. The largest upshifts, irrespective of species, were in the order of 200 m (max. 245 m). In perspective of historical treeline shifts, the new and higher treelines are close to the position prevailing about 7000 years ago. In contrast to previous generalizations, no obvious differences existed between southern and northern Scandes. Based on a common temperature lapse rate of 0.6°C per 100 m altitude and recorded regional and centennial summer warming of 1.7°C, the observed rise appears as a fully expected response. This kind of performance indicates that, at optimal sites, treelines are in equilibrium with climate at a centennial scale, in cases of climate warming.

Study on Impact of Clay Minerals on the Characteristics of Volume Changes of Heavy Soils

Milan Gomboš, I. D. Andrej Tall, Branislav Kandra, Dana Pavelková

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 39-58

Clay minerals can absorb water and incorporate it into its microstructure. During these processes (water absorption or loss), volume changes occur in clay particles. High content of clay particles in soils can lead to their volume changes, provided there are simultaneous changes in moisture. Volume changes of heavy soils occuring during shrinking and swelling processes are important because they are accompanied with soil surface shrinkage and cracks formation. Formation and dynamics of cracks have an important impact on transport processes in heavy soils and consequently on their water regime. The presented chapter describes the results of the analysis of the influence of clay content on the coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE), potential of linear extensibility (PLE) and geometric factor of soils. The hypothesis about the influence of texture on the value of the volume change potential and the geometric factor, and thus on the degree of distribution of volume changes on the vertical and horizontal components, was verified. The hypothesis assumes that the clay soil component has the greatest influence on the potential of volume changes and on the geometric factor value. New information is obtained on the basis of field and laboratory measurements. Results will be used as inputs for numerical simulation of water regimes of heavy soils.

Studies on Global Redox Carbon Cycle and Periodicity of Some Phenomena in Biosphere (6381)

Alexander A. Ivlev

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 59-71

The irregular periodicity of some biosphere phenomena, such as climatic cycles, mass extinctions, abrupt changes of biodiversity rate and others in the course of geological time is analyzed by means of a global redox carbon cycle model.  It is shown that these different by nature phenomena have a common cause for the periodicity. The cause is the periodic impact of moving lithospheric plates on photosynthesis via CO2 injections. The source of  CO2 is the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter in thermochemical sulfate reduction from subduction zone, where plates collide. The periodicity and the irregularity of lithospheric plates’ movement generate orogenic cycles, at the background of which biosphere events appear.  The biosphere events are usually followed by a set of traits that are used to identify the events in the geological past. Orogenic cycles manifested till the moment when the carbon cycle didn’t reach the ecological compensation point, i.e. when the amount of photosynthetically produced carbon will become equal to the amount of the reduced carbon oxidized in the numerous oxidation processes in the Earth’s crust. After reaching this point long-term orogenic cycles were replaced by short-term climatic oscillations. The same set of traits characterizing the orogenic cycles and the climatic oscillations evidences for their same nature.  The changes concern only duration of the event and the scale of its influence.

Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents in Blue Swimming Crab from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea, Mersin Bay, Turkey

Mine Perçin Olgunoglu, Ilkan Ali Olgunoglu

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 72-78

The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), aluminium (Al), and iron (Fe) in the carapace meat of female and male blue swimming crabs (Portunus segnis) from the northeastern Mediterranean Sea in the Gulf of Mersin, Turkey, are investigated in the current study . The order of average heavy metal concentrations in carapace meat samples in both male and female species was Zn>Fe >Cu>Al>Mn>Cr>Pb. From the obtained results, the levels of some metals such as Cu, Zn, and Fe were higher than the acceptable values for human consumption designated by various health organizations. The comparison of our results with previous studies showed that blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis) have been contaminated with heavy metals. The occurrence of high levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe in the aquatic environment is thought to be a result of industrial and maritime traffic activities in Mersin Bay. It may be suggested that continuous care must be taken – especially according to the season – to biomonitor the heavy metal levels if they always exceed the maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption.

Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe) in Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea Risso 1827) from the Mediterranean Sea

Mine Perçin Olgunoglu, Ilkan Ali Olgunoglu, Yusuf Kenan Bayhan

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 79-88

Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe) in the muscle and liver of female and male specimens of economically significant giant red shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) taken from the Mediterranean Sea were determined in this study . Samples of species were collected in summer and winter. The results show that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver for male and female shrimps were higher than those in muscle. Also, the average Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations in both liver and muscle for male shrimp were slightly higher than the average levels of female shrimp. Significant differences were observed only for Cu in liver and for Fe in muscle (p<0.05). When our findings were compared to international standards, it was discovered that the quantities of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe in muscle tissue were lower than the recognised range of WHO and FDA criteria.

Effects of Thermal and Non -Thermal Pre-Processing Methods on Physical Attributes of Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) Seed

J. O. Odedeji, E. A. Akande, O. O. Fapojuwo, A. Ojo

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 89-101

The effects of thermal and non- thermal pre-processing methods on the physical parameters of Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) seed were studied. Jackbean seeds obtained from germ-plasm unit of Internation Institute of Tropical Agriculture, (IITA) Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria was subjected to roasting and autoclaving as forms of thermal pre-processing methods and sprouting as a non-thermal pre-processing method. Length, width and thickness were evaluated by the use of digital venier caliper, sphericity index by the use of formular and aspect ratio which is the ratio between length and width. Physical characterization results showed that all the pre-processing methods investigated had effects on the seed. There was decrease in all these parameters except sphericity index in relation to roasting: length 19.00- 15.00 mm, width 13.00- 11.00 mm, thickness 10.75- 10.55 mm and sphericity index 72.88- 80.20 %. The aspect ratio decreased with pre-processing time for all the treatments used from 1.46 – 1.33. Kernel density (g/cm3), bulk density (g/cm3) and density ratio for the untreated seed were 1.24, 0.73 and 0.59 respectively. However, with sprouting and autoclaving, there was increase in length from 19.00 – 24.00 mm, width 13.00 – 18.00 mm, thickness 10.75 – 11.10 mm but a decrease in sphericity index  (72.88 – 67.46 %) with increase in the pre-processing time. These results are important in the designing of processing equipment for the seeds thus, encouraging the industrial utilization of the seed. These methods can be applied to other underutilized legumes that are on the verge of extinction.

Static Globe or Expanded Earth? Let's Face the Facts Straight Forward

Subhasis Sen

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 102-105

Based on extensive research into all types of global tectonics, particularly continental drift and plate tectonics, as well as other concepts envisaging unaltered dimensions of the globe in comparison to various expansion-based views, the present author came to the conclusion that the former models fail to account for the supportive condition of the mantle for undergoing widespread movements of continental fragments or plates.In contrast, the earth expansion theory, as updated by the author of this page, clearly suggests that the mantle material during the expansion stage was considerably fluid and hence primarily suitable for all types of continental motions, including the planet's all-encompassing expansion (Sen, 1983-2007) [1-4]

Estimation of Deposited Sediment Budgets on the Floodplain of an Giang Province, Vietnam

Tran Thi Hong Ngoc, Phan Truong Khanh

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 106-117

This paper presents the result of suspended and deposited sediment measurements on the floodplain of An Giang province along the Cambodia-Vietnam border during a flood event in 2018. GIS and Remote sensing techniques were used to build maps for the flooded areas. Discharge were also measured on main channels and on the floodplain. Correlation equations between deposition sediment and discharge were build. The results of Landsat interpretting showed that inundation area of the floodplain was 35,765ha. Deposited sediment decreased with distance from the main channels. The results showed that total deposited sediment mass brought to the floodplain during a single flood event in 2018 was 5.023 million tons (14.04 kg/m2) and decreased compared to previous years. The decreased sediment, and its associated nutrients will negatively affect agricultural production in the floodplain, which will lead to a major impact on the ecological environment, and economic development of the region.

Bioremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil using Associated Microbes

Girija Ramankutty, Jothi Nedunchezhiyan

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 118-125

The current study was conducted to determine the bacterial species present in the petroleum-contaminated soils of various workshops, as well as to assess the rate of utilisation of petroleum products by the isolates. The soil samples were taken from five different mechanic shops in Tiruchirappalli Corporation, Tamil Nadu, India. To isolate bacterial species from petroleum-contaminated soils, soil samples were plated on nutrient agar, desoxycholate citrate agar, brilliant green agar, blood agar etc. The bacterial isolates isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil were  Pseudomonas sp., Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Salmonella sp., E. coli sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp. Among the varied bacterial isolates Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., utilized all the test substrates as petrol, diesel and kerosene. The research shows that Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Streptococcus sp., and Micrococcus sp. can use petroleum products in the soil.

Investigations on Exhaust Emissions of a Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Alternative Fuels

M. V. S. Murali Krishna, V. V. R. Seshagiri Rao, R. P. Chowdary, N. Janardhan, N. Venkateswara Rao, T. Ratna Reddy

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 6, 3 August 2021, Page 126-139

In scenario of fast attenuation of conventional fuels, the search for alternative fuels has become pertinent. Alcohols and vegetable oils are important substitute fuels for diesel, as they are renewable. Vegetable oils have advantages of comparable calorific value and cetane number as that of diesel fuel. Alcohols have merits of high volatility and presence of oxygen in their molecular structure or composition. However, vegetable oils have demerits of high viscosity and low volatility. Alcohols have disadvantages of low cetane number (a measure of combustion quality in diesel engine) and low calorific value. Hence vegetable oils and alcohols call for low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine, which can eliminate the combustion problems with vegetable oils and alcohols. Investigations were carried out to determine the exhaust emissions from different versions of low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine such as - LHR-1 engine, (ceramic coated engine), LHR-2 engine (air gap insulated engine) and LHR-3 engine (the combination of LHR-1 and LHR-2 engine) with carbureted butanol and crude jatropha oil (CJO). Hence the advantages of vegetable oil and alcohol can be utilized to reduce pollutants from the engine. Exhaust emissions of particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and aldehydes from different configurations of the LHR engines were determined at full load operation of the engine with test fuels with varied injection pressure and compared with neat diesel operation on conventional engine (CE). Particulate matter and NOx were measured at full load operation by AVL Smoke meter and Netel Chromatograph NOx analyzer respectively. Aldehydes which include formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at full load operation were measured by wet method as dinitrophenyle (DNPH) method. LHR versions of the engine decreased exhaust emissions considerably with carbureted butanol. The emissions decreased further with increase of injection pressure in different versions of the engine.