Dr. Mustafa Turkmen
Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science & Arts, Giresun University,  Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-90768-63-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-64-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ciees/v2

This book covers key areas of environment and earth science. The contributions by the authors include treeline, climate change, age structure, reindeer browsing, megafossils, polycomponent ores, dynamo metamorphism, mechanometasomatites, noble metals, microaggregates, nanophases, trace minerals, ore-forming system, geochemical micro anomalies, water sanitation, water quality, phytoremediation, textile effluents, salt affected soils, salt hyper accumulating plant, household waste management, municipal solid waste, water urban availability, green roof technology, ecosystem services, phytotherapy, environmental mitigation, underwater acoustic sensor network, morphometric analysis, geometry, ecotype, operational taxonomic unit, relative warp Analysis. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment and earth science.


Media Promotion:


For about a century, Abisko Scientific Research Station in northern Swedish Lapland has served as a logistic base for high-quality geoecological research in subalpine/subarctic environments. In recent years, and driven by the prospect of alleged man-made global warming, much of the scientific focus has been on dynamics of the treeline ecotone. In this context, field observations, analyses and interpretations emanating from research carried out in the Abisko region are discussed in perspective of recent observations and analyses. Local mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline rise by maximum 230 m during the past 100 years conforms quantitatively to data obtained further south in the Scandes. This broad-scale inter-regional coincidence indicates that a common operative agent has been responsible. The most likely candidate is recorded secular climate warming by 2.5°C. This contention is further supported by age structure analysis in the birch treeline advance zone, indicating that the vegetative initiation of new trees peaked during the warm 1930s, when reindeer number were high and reached a nadir during the relatively cold 1960s and 1970s, coincident with smaller reindeer herds. These data suggest, contrary to previous hypotheses, stating that, relative to climate change, intensity of reindeer browsing has been of minor importance for birch treeline dynamics. The upper limit of closed stands of mountain birch and pine have shifted relatively insignificantly in elevational position during the predominantly warm past 100 years. Over the same period or longer, common aspen (Populus tremula) has frequently occurred as low-growing krummholz (stunted growth forms) over the entire mountain birch region. During the warm 1930s and just like birch, rapid height increment was initiated and has continued up to the present day. Thereby, many individuals have attained tree-sized in recent decades. Accordingly, aspen (Populus tremula) has, presumably in response to climate warming, become a more conspicuous element in the mountain birch forest. The current analyses refute prior claims that aspen regeneration is accomplished by seed regeneration rather than phenotypic adjustment of old-growth creeping individuals. Picea abies and Larix sp. are recorded as new species in the Abisko area. In accordance with prior analyses in other parts of the Scandes, megafossil data show that the treelines of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) and grey alder (Alnus incana) peaked in the early Holocene. Based on the elevational difference between early Holocene and present treeline positions (adjusted for 100 m land uplift) it may be inferred that the summer temperatures exceeded those of the last few decades by about 3.0°C. This study challenges recent proposals that aspen is currently spreading upslope and westwards in the birch forest belt by seed establishment of new individuals. In response to recent warming they have attained tree size and have become a more conspicuous element of the landscape.

Research on Mykert-Sanzheevka Field of Polycomponent Ores (Pb, Zn, Ag, Au, PGE): Geologic-Substance Characteristics and Formation Features of Ore-Forming System

Alexander Vasilyevich Tatarinov, Lyubov Ilyinichna Yalovik, Anatoly Georgievich Mironov, Victor Fedorovich Posokhov

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 2, 5 March 2021, Page 26-48

The new results of geologic-structural, petrographic and mineralogic-geochemical researches of Mykert-Sanzheevka ore field—the Uda-Vitim mineragenic zone South-West ending of West Transbaikalia are given. In the article the research results of noble-metal-polymetallic mineralization of Mykert-Sanzheevka ore field are presented. Its main ore-controlling structure, represented by losange, consisting of rhombohedral and tetrahedral blocks-duplexes mosaic clusters, which are separated by narrow tectonic sutures, is specified. It is clarified that polycomponent ores clusters are confined with these small-block sutures, made by subvolcanic dykes of shoshonitelatite volcanoplutonic association (233 - 188 million years), apodyke dynamometamorphites (breccias, cataclasite, mylonites) and also mechanometasomatites. Four stages of the dynamometamorphites formation characterized by different species compositions of ore minerals appeared as a result of mechanochemical reactions are determined. Small Mykert field of Sanzheevka mineral occurrence and Big Mykert form a single ore field A carbonyl model of mineral microaggregates formation with films containing noble metal nano-particles is proposed. Oreforming system features of Mykert-Sanzheevka field are considered.

Water Quality Variations within the Urban Stretch of a River in Nigeria

F. A. Oginni

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 2, 5 March 2021, Page 49-64

The industrial nerve centre of Ogun State is Sango-Otta in Nigeria. It is home to many beverages and other allied factories. The densely populated industrial community is drained by River Atuara, and can be a sanitation concern to users downstream of the urbanized stretch. To stem a possible sanitation issue, this study is purposed to assess the quality of water in the river along its 13km urbanized stretch, which is within Owode – Otta and Gbenga quarters of Sango – Otta in Ogun State, Nigeria. An investigation is undertaken to study the physical and chemical analysis of the quality of water in the river channel to determine its level of pollution. Total Dissolved Solids, TDS, pH, Colour and Temperature measurements were obtained for nine locations on the 21km river stretch. Laboratory analyses were carried out at 4 locations along the water course for the following parameters: pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS. Others include Phosphate, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Cadmium, Lead, Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Nickel. Results indicate that the water quality reduces downstream of the urbanized stretch. Some of the level of heavy metals in the river calls for concern. At Owode, the lead content of 0.11mg/L is too high compared to a maximum of 0.01mg/l permissible, which can cause cancer. This can interfere with Vitamin D metabolism, and can affect mental development in infants. It is toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Cadmium is below 0.002 which is just below the 0.003mg/l permitted in Nigeria. Nickel content was 0.046mg/l between Owode and Ewupe and this is above the maximum permissible level of 0.02 for Nigeria. This has the possibility of carcinogenic health impact. Owode and Ewupe have greater industrial impacts than the other two locations, Igboloye and Gbenga. The trends of each of the 21 parameters from the urbanized stretch of the river have been observed to follow a pattern that can be categorized as similar, mirrored, somersault and composite of mirrored and somersault. More studies were recommended in this direction as well as in determining the locations of factories and industries contributing to the pollution level around Ewupe and their effluent disposal programs will need to be ascertained.

Study on Phytoremediation Potential of Sesuvium portulacastrum on Remediating Salt Affected Soil

Jayashree Ramaswamy, Kalaiselvi Periasamy`, Bhagyasree Venugopal

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 2, 5 March 2021, Page 65-72

Sesuvium portulacastrum is a salt hyper accumulating plant and pioneer plant species used for desalination and phytoremediation. The plant tolerates abiotic constraints such as salinity and drought. It grows under severe salinity and it can be used for the remediation and restoration of salt contaminated soils affected from industrial effluents. Among the major water demanding industries, the textile industry has biggest impact on the environment related to primary water consumption and waste water discharge. Textile effluent has a large range of organic chemicals of high salinity, high colour and low biodegradability. Salinity exerts negative effects on plant growth and affects the biological stability of ecosystems.The experiment on salt uptake through salt enrichment study was conducted and also to assess the potential of Sesuvium portulacastrum collected from Pitchavaram in Chidambaram District of Tamil Nadu, India for the remediation of dye and textile contaminated area in Andipalayam, Mangalam and Palayakottai villages of Tirupur District of Tamil Nadu was studied upto 70Days After Planting (DAP). The results of the soil analysis revealed that, the initial EC of soil 13.04 dSm-1 is reduced to 7.37 dSm-1(30 Days after planting (DAP) and 5.34 dSm-1(60DAP). The plant shoot length and root lengths were increased to 74% and biomass was increased to 94% in 5000 mg/kg of Na enriched soils. The electrical conductivity and sodium content were decreased in Sesuvium grown soil enriched with different concentrations of Na. 77.8% of Sodium was removed from the soil in a span of 90 days. Environmentally, the plant’s potential has been checked for its survival under different abiotic stress conditions that includes salinity, drought and heavy metal accumulation which makes Sesuvium a useful species as a heavy metal pollution indicator and for predicting soil salinity.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation is growing rapidly as compared to the rate of urbanization. Household waste management is considered a highly challenging task for Bahrain’s policy-makers, urban planners and municipalities due to rising population, burgeoning growth rate of waste generation, limited availability of land and scarce waste disposal sites. Public awareness represents a key enabler in order to succeed any sustainable waste management practice in the country. The survey aimed at gauging public awareness about household waste management in Muharraq Governorate and explored if there are any correlations between educational level, gender, occupation and age and area of living with the level of public awareness as well as its three components: knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the people in Muharraq Governorate. The results indicated the total awareness is significantly different across different age levels and nationality. Moreover, it shows a high public awareness toward household waste management among people in Muharraq Governorate, which indicated that the society is aware and has the basics to build on in terms of sustainable waste management practices and technologies adoption, which may help overcome the possible social barrier represented by low public awareness. The government was strongly recommended to prioritize reduce, reuse and recycle (3Rs) principle to prepare the society for more advanced technologies.

Water will be one of the key resources for a sustainable urban development. Making clean water available in the next forty or so years will require the extending of the service to 3.7 billion more residents in urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to promote an engineered redistribution of fresh water in space and time. This problem must be solved in a sustainable way using an innovative Green Infrastructure (GI) able to increase the water provision in urban systems realizing the recover of rainwater and domestic water and reusing the same for irrigation and non-potable uses. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop a project idea of GI focused on the reuse of water resource in a condominium of 40 housing units located in Lecce, south Italy. In particular, the project will exploit the free areas on the roof of the building, accounting a total surface of about 900 sqm. The project involves the construction of a green roof to develop the ecological functions linked to the purification of wastewater like in a Constructed Treatment Wetland (CTW) that represents a low-cost alternative to conventional secondary or tertiary wastewater treatment. This green roof allows the reuse of wastewater on site for sanitary, garden activities and other uses in the building, reducing the exploitation of the already scarce regional freshwater resources. The project idea also includes the possibility of using aromatic and medicinal plant species for phytoremediation, with potential applications in phytotherapy and cosmetics. CTWs produce ecosystem services like ones provided by wetlands and, therefore, act as sinks of CO2. Moreover, it is widely recognized that the green roof reduces the heating of the buildings caused by the solar irradiation, thus reducing the consumption of energy necessary to cool the apartments. So, the green roof turns from an unused cemented roof into a source of ecosystem services related to both the reuse of water resources and the development of potential economic activities. At the municipal level, the replication of this project on many buildings could reduce the water demand for residential areas as well as can mitigate the island heat effect that afflicts urban area during the summer and improve the quality of life in the city. This approach offers many opportunities for integration of water resource conservation, economic development and public health promotion.

1 Carbon Isotopic Data Validate the New Model of Carbon Turnover

A. A. Ivlev

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 2, 5 March 2021, Page 97-110

A new global redox carbon cycle model is suggested. It claims that lithosphere plates’ movement exerts an impact on photosynthesis development. The impact is realized via periodic injections of CO2 coming from zones of plates’ collisions. Carbon dioxide is derived from oxidation of sedimentary organic carbon in thermochemical sulfate reduction proceeding in subduction zones. Carbon turnover is considered as a conversion of the element from the oxidized state (CO2 + HCO3- + CO32-) into the reduced state produced in photosynthesis and in the following transformations. The isotopic data confirm the validity of the model. They explain the observed correlation of carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter with geologic age. It was found that the difference between carbon isotope composition of organic matter and that of coeval carbonates is an analog of the carbon 13C isotope discrimination in photosynthesis used for modern plants. The periodicity of isotopic characteristics correlates with the periodicity of climatic changes, mass extinctions, with the irregularity of stratigraphic distribution of rocks rich in organic matter and other periodic events in biosphere. The model explains, how the evolution of photosynthesis resulted in the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere and sedimentary organic matter in the Earth's crust, and how these changes eventually brought the global carbon cycle system to an ecological compensation point. At this point all the parameters of the system stabilized and began to oscillate around a certain stationary state.

Recent Study on Location Verification Based Neighbor Discovery for Shortest Routing in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network

S. A. Kalaiselvan, V. Parthasarathy, N. Satheesh

Challenging Issues on Environment and Earth Science Vol. 2, 5 March 2021, Page 111-117

Under water acoustic sensor network is currently analyzing by the researchers in term of energy efficiency, shortest routing and improving throughput. Neighbor discovery is one of the most important tasks in shortest secure routing in UASN. The main objective of this paper is to discover a shortest route by connecting trusted nodes in terms of location. The location information sent by the node is verified by Al-Wahda approach for assigning the node as the best nearest neighbor node. Since the intermediate nodes are best neighbors in terms of location and trust value, the efficacy of the routing is high. The performance of the neighbor discovery is analyzed using multi-hop settings. There will be an upper and lower bound value is assigned for routing from source to destination. Our neighbor discovery algorithms do not require estimates of node density and allow asynchronous operation .The simulation for this paper is carried out in Network Simulator software and the performance is evaluated.

Background: This study was conducted to describe variations in the shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum of populations of adult Brontispa longissima (Gestro) infesting coconut farms from selected areas in the Philippines using Cluster Analysis, Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms and Procustean Analysis.

The data used in this study included shape residuals captured using the method of landmark based geometric morphometrics.

Objective: This study was conducted to describe variations in the shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum of populations of adult Brontispa longissima (Gestro) infesting coconut farms from selected areas in the Philippines using Cluster Analysis, Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms and Procustean Analysis.

Results: The results of the cluster analyses based on the average shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum shows no consistent pattern of similarity between and among five populations of B. longissima. When localized variations using Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms was done, the findings revealed that RWA was only successful in summarizing variations using two relative warps in the shape of the elytra where the first two warps contained 86.29% of the variations of the female and 85.48% for the males. For the head and pronotum, the first two relative warps captured less than 50% of the overall variation. Looking at the shapes of the frequency histograms, all were found to follow a unimodal distribution. The box plots reveal no consistent results.

Among the three characters studied only the elytra were more robust and reliable compared to head and pronotum and then Tandag differ from the rest of the other overlapping populations. On the other hand, Procustean Analyses revealed that elytra were more spread in the posterior region both in male and female. The coordinates in head and pronotum were evenly distributed. In the overlapping consensus configurations show that variability was exaggerated in the right side of the elytra and the posterior parts of the head and pronotum. Results also showed expansion among females while compression among males in elytra. For males, expansion are localized in the posterior part of the elytra, for the head, results showed asymmetry in the distribution of expansion areas where expansion are observed in the right postero-lateral aspect of the female head.

Conclusion: The overall results may imply that they might belong to one operational taxonomic unit or ecotype or biotype. Geography might not be the factor responsible for the differentiation of the populations of B. longissima. Other important factors might include the variety of coconut host and some other important environmental parameters. This has yet to be established in future research.