Prof. Wagih Mommtaz Ghannam
Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19315-42-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19315-44-4 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cidhr/v1

This book covers key areas of disease and health research. The contributions by the authors include alpha-mangostin, nanoparticles, cholangiocarcinoma, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell invasion, cell migration, child abuse, psychological problems, sexual assault, floating knee, polytrauma, Cauchoix-Duparc classification, traumatology, coronavirus, aerosol transmission, disease Control and prevention, complementary foods, mineral analysis, soft tissue mobilization,  non-invasive treatment, manual therapy, Parkinson’s disease, conventional physiotherapy, nursing process, pediatric dentistry, temporomandibular disorders, autism spectrum disorder, neurologic development, intertrochanteric fracture, trochanteric fixation nailing, morbidity, indoor pollutions, human health hazards. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of disease and health research.


Media Promotion:


Alpha-mangostin-loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cholangiocarcinoma

Kesara Na-Bangchang , Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarn, Chuda Chittasupho

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 1-25

The present study aimed to formulate and characterize the AM-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (AM-PLGA-NPs) and further evaluated their antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities, including inhibitory activities on CCA cell invasion and migra-tion. Alpha-mangostin, a natural xanthone mainly extracted from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, has been shown to have promising anticancer properties in many types of cancer. PLGA MW 7,000-17,000 and 38,000-54,000 were used to make the AM-PLGA-NPs using the solvent displacement method. Physical (particle size and morphology, polydispersity index, and zeta potential) and pharmaceutical (encapsulation efficiency, loading efficiency, and drug release profile) parameters were assessed for the optimised AM-PLGA-NPs. . The morphology of the AM-PLGA-NPs and PLGA-NPs were examined under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The MTT assay, flow-cytometry, QCM ECMatrix cell migration and cell invasion assays were used to evaluate antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities, including inhibitory activities on CCA cell (CL-6 and HuCCT-1) invasion and migration, respectively. The inhibitory activities of AM-PLGA-NPs on the migration and invasion of both CCA cell lines were concentration- and time-dependent, while no inhibitory effect was found with OUMS-36T-1F cells. AM-PLGA-NPs showed relatively potent and selective antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in both CCA cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Results revealed that PLGA nanoparticles could be a suitable nanocarrier to encapsulate AM for its delivery to CCA cells. The underlying molecular mechanisms of AM-PLGA-NPs involved in these activities should be further investigated.

Awareness through Teaching Program Regarding Child Abuse


Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 26-35

This chapter assess the effectiveness of a structured teaching program regarding child abuse. Child abuse and neglect can cause a variety of psychological problems. Maltreatment can cause victims to feel isolation, fear, and distrust, which can translate into lifelong psychological consequences that can manifest as educational difficulties, low self-esteem, depression, and trouble forming and maintaining relationships.Quasi experimental one group pre-test-post-test design was used and setting was selected rural areas of Sarojini Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Samples of 73 mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique. Tools were used as self-structured knowledge questionnaires.

In the pre-test, there were 63 mothers had an average level of knowledge i.e 86.3%, the remaining 10 mothers had a poor level of knowledge i.e 13.69% and none of them had a good level of knowledge whereas in the post-test 58 mothers had a good level of knowledge i.e 79.45%, 15 mothers had an average level of knowledge i.e 20.54% and none of them had poor level of knowledge and the final result revealed that the mean score of the pre-test knowledge was 10.42 with SD of 1.95 whereas the mean score of the post-test knowledge score was 17.61 and SD was 1.7. Based on the findings researcher compared the calculated t value i.e. 21.05 and the tabulated value i.e.1.99 on 72 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. The appropriate degrees of freedom, the analysed data reveals that there was a significant association of the pre-test knowledge with the demographic variables i.e religion and number of male children whereas there was no significant association of the pre-test knowledge scores with age, types of family, no. of children, no. of female children, income, education, occupation and previous knowledge. Since the calculated value was higher than the tabulated value the researcher rejected the null hypothesis and accepted the alternative hypothesis. Which revealed that there was a significant increase in the level of knowledge. There is a need of providing proper information and education regarding child abuse. So, healthcare providers should provide health education to improve their knowledge regarding child abuse among mothers of school-age children.

An Epidemiological Profile and Management of Floating Knee at the Traumatology and Orthopedics Department (Section A) of Hassan II Hospital, Fez/Morocco

Kamal Lahrach , Boubacar Soumaré , Saeed Abdul Razak , Bah Souleymane, Diarra Abdoul Salam, Boutayeb Fawzi

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 36-44

Present study highlights the epidemiological profile and management of floating knee at the traumatology and Orthopedics department (section A) of Hassan II Hospital, Fez/Morocco. The floating knee is an association of ipsilateral femur and tibia fractures first described by BLAKE and MCBRYDE in 1974. The study retrospectively reviewed the cases of 32 patients who were operated between January 2009 and November 2018. We only included patients with a floating knee. Staging and indexing both used Frazer's classification. Open fractures were evaluated preoperatively for severity of related injuries using the Injury Severity Score and the Cauchoix-Duparc classification. Functional outcomes were assessed use the Karlstrom and Olerud criteria. Young active adults were the most affected with a mean age of 28 years and a clear male predominance (90.62%). Road accidents were the main cause (93.75%).

According to Fraser's classification, 68.75% of cases were type I, type IIa (15.62 %), type IIb (9.37%) and type IIc (6.25%). Seventeen patients underwent IM nailing of both femur and tibia fractures. Four patients (12.5%) underwent ORIF with DCP femur plate; 3 patients (9.37%) underwent condylar plate bridging of the femur; whereas 2 patients (6.25%) underwent ORIF of tibia with DCP plate and 2 patients (6.25%) with T-buttress plate of the tibial plateau. The advent of several modes of transport coupled with the growth of the automobile industry and especially the non-compliance with the road safety regulations are largely to blame for the surge in road traffic accidents. In Morocco, RTA’s are the main etiology of floating knees.

The floating knee is a condition that is slowly spreading over our side of the world and mostly affects young, active folks. Most typically, radio-clinical diagnosis is used. A skilled interdisciplinary team should carry out management because it is operational. 

Assessment of Awareness and Optimal Utilization of Personal Protective Equipment during COVID-19 Pandemic by Health Care Workers

Jatin Vasudeo Badgujar , Gaurav Mahesh Sharma

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 45-63

This chapter provides an overview of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding the use of PPE during COVID-19 pandemic among health care workers at a tertiary care center. This cross-sectional study was conducted among Health Care Workers (HCW) including all resident doctors and nursing staff working at Mahatma Gandhi Missions’ (MGM) hospital which is a dedicated

Covid-19 tertiary health care center situated in Navi Mumbai, India. A pre-designed, pre-validated, semi-structured questionnaire regarding the use of PPE was distributed online to eligible HCW and their responses were recorded electronically between April 14, 2020 and April 20, 2020. A total of 423 out of 475 eligible participants successfully submitted their responses and were included in the present study which included junior resident doctors (55.70%), senior resident doctors (19.60%) and nursing staff (24.60%). The Mean total knowledge score was 4.169 ± 1.006 with an overall correct response rate of 75.8%. The result of one-way ANOVA indicated that there is significant difference in the mean total knowledge score according to designation (F=6602, p<.01) with improved knowledge score seen in HCW with higher designation. Frontline HCW are at increased risk of acquiring nosocomial infection in hospital settings as seen in outbreaks of transmissible infectious diseases in the past. More than one-fifth (21%) of patients who acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which emerged in 2002 were HCW. Majority of HCW had positive attitude and appropriate practices regarding the use of PPE. Appropriate utilization of PPE is extremely crucial to prevent transmission of infection to health care workers and other patients. This will avoid collapse of existing health care system already burdened during pandemic. Completeness and accuracy of PPE usage depends on adequate knowledge, right attitude and correct practices of health care workers. Its assessment enables health authorities to undertake quick key policy decisions and interventions at various levels of health care.

Nutritional Evaluation and Functional Analysis of Children’s Food Made from Maize, Dates, Groundnut and Soyabeans for Household Use

E. Okwori , R. O. Onu, I. I. Odunze, M. Zango

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 64-75

The study reports the Nutrition, physiochemical, functional analysis of complementary food made from maize, dates, groundnut and soya beans. The nutritional, chemical and mineral analysis was investigated by analyzing the moisture content, crude protein, crude oil, ash content, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, phosphorus and ascorbic acid. The Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC, 1990) methods were used. The proximate composition of maize soya beans groundnut dates base complementary food shows moisture, 4.96 ± 0 .19, ash = 0.57 ± 0.03, lipid = 24.97 ± 0.12, protein = 13.15 ± 0.40, fibre = 0.00 ± 0.00, CHO = 56.36 ± 0. 11. Functional properties of maize soybeans groundnut dates based complementary food: bulk density (BD) = 0.66, Water Absorption Capacity (WAC) = 4.30, Oil holding Capacity (OHC) = 2.11, swelling capacity (SC) = 0.30, PH = 6.15. The sensory evaluation results was; aroma = 56.3333±45.74203, colour = 40.0000±35.80503, texture = 43.2500±37.55330, overall acceptability = 84.5000 ± 4.94975, palatability = 85.0000 ± 7.07107, taste = 56.3333±45.74203. From the results of the study, the following conclusions were made; the essential nutrients needed for the wellbeing of households and that of a growing child is present in appreciable amounts and has acceptable properties (Colour, texture, taste, etc.). Therefore, the study recommends that families or households should utilize these complementary foods, as they are relativity cheaper in procurement and nutritionally adequate.

Recent Advances on Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM)

Jaykumar Soni, Kosha Aghara

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 76-83

Background: This Chapter aims to show the effects of IASTM various musculoskeletal disorders. It is the part of manual therapy technique. Various types of instruments are used to treat muscle pathologies and musculoskeletal conditions. The effect of this tool is unclear to understand. Evidences suggest that applying this with combination of the techniques helps in lessening the symptoms.

Methods: A search of the articles were conducted between they years of  2014 and  2022 with electronic data base: PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PEDroand Web of science. The keywords were included were instrument; assisted; augmented; soft-tissue; mobilization; traditional technique.

Results: Total thirteen articles were taken. Which were case reports, pilot studies, cross control studies, experimental studies and randomized controlled trials.

Conclusion: A positive effect of IASTM technique in different muscle pathology and musculoskeletal conditions were seen. It is effective in improving range of motion of joints and reduce pain.

The Effectiveness of Exergaming Rehabilitation versus Conventional Physiotherapy on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Papamichael Elena, Solou Demetris , Michailidou Christina, Papamichail Marios

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 84-114

The chapter collects and analyzes evidence-based information for the presentation of the outcomes of quality of life, activities of daily living, physical and cognitive function for people with PD, under the use of exergaming rehabilitation versus conventional physiotherapy. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, with postural instability appearing in some patients as the disease progresses. Digital games and programmes that contain  subject interaction with the implementation of repetitive functional activities are included in exergaming rehabilitation. Physiotherapy as it is practised today includes a number of active exercises.  Five electronic databases were searched for eligible studies until February 2021. For the statistical analysis, the mean, standard deviation, and 95% confidence interval were used to calculate effect sizes between groups. To determine heterogeneity, statistical index I² was used. A total of 548 participants were included in 14 studies. Exergaming rehabilitation related with quality of life improvement (p = 0.687, 95% CI: -1.682 to -0.734), balance (p = 0.039, 95% CI: 0.364–13.689), (p = 0.018, 95% CI: 0.446–4.830), and gait (p = 0.005, 95% CI:0.351–1.924). No significant difference was found between groups regarding the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (p = 0.196, 95% CI: -5.970 to 1.225) and for the Timed Up and Go Test (p = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.446–4.830). Exergames as interventional tool can be used to provide alternative interactive method with positive results for quality of life in people with PD. The application of more advanced technological ER systems provides variability of gamification and simultaneous combination of exergaming programs that allow the execution of more realistic activities, raising the physical and emotional interaction between the individual and the environment. This gives the opportunity to evaluate the use and effectiveness of the intervention in mental health and motivation for people with PD, which should be considered in future studies.

Implementation of Nursing Process at the Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching Hospital in Anambra State, Nigeria

Michael Nnaemeka Ajemba, Perpetua Ngozi Eze, Ebube Chinwe Arene, Chinemerem Henry Ugo, Robert Chibueze Osuji

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 115-131

This chapter determine how well nurses have achieved the utilization of the process identifying also the factors that contribute to the nurses’ success or failure in utilizing the process. The findings will help to suggest possible measures that can be taken to alleviate the factors militating against its use or encourage its use. Nursing became concerned with client total need and made concerted effort to develop more systematic and rational pattern for determining and meeting the needs of her patients.

The population of the study consists of nurses working in various wards and special units in NAUTH.  Demographic data was gathered using a pre-tested, self-report questionnaire, and respondents' responses to questions about potential influences on the nursing process were recorded.  The hypothesis was tested using Chi-square analysis at significant level of 0.05.

Out of the workgroup of 143 nurses majority (76.2%) have not fully implemented nursing process in daily care of clients. Only 23.8% have implemented nursing process fully. 65% of the nurses identified lack of cooperation among nurses as the major impediment to implementation of nursing process, majority of respondents (74.1%) subsequently suggested organization of regular update workshops as a way to impacting and promoting the required knowledge of practical use of nursing process in order to avert the identified problem. Majority of the respondents (74.1%) in organizing regular update workshop trainings will help to promote the implementation of nursing process in NAUTH.

In NAUTH, the nursing process is still being extensively implemented in the everyday client care. The supervision of subordinates as they follow the nursing process must be a top priority for nurse supervisors.

Application of Tekscan in Pediatric Dentistry: A Review

Umapathy Thimmegowda, Arya Radhakrishnan

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 132-142

This chapter highlights a general overview of the T-scan technology and discuss its potential applications in paediatric dentistry. Technology developments have ushered in a new era in medicine. For excellent clinical dentistry practice, occlusion knowledge is essential. The Tekscan can give the dentist an almost instantaneous evaluation of the patient's interdental forces, which can reveal abnormalities connected to forces. The right occlusion has been evaluated using a variety of techniques. T-Scan is now more widely used to capture the occlusion pattern. Precision recording is a feature, but it has a few restrictions that make it difficult to use. The hardware has allegedly undergone constant improvements from T-Scan I to T-Scan 8, although this still has to be confirmed in follow-up investigations.

Autism Spectrum Screening Instrument (M-Chat) in Day Centers in the City of Iranduba-AM: Application and Its Significance

Cristianne Confessor Castilho Lopes , Rayssa Figueiredo Magalhães Santiago , Adriana Auzier Loureiro Barbosa , Thalyssa Figueiredo Magalhães , Aline Garcia Farias, Ananias Nogueira Mendes , Karen Aline Brandão Campos Abtibol, Moisés Abtibol Machado , Ana Carla Queiroz de Morais, Fernanda Albuquerque da Silva, Maria Helena Rego Martins , Larissa Magalhães Figueiredo, Miriam Sabino de Oliveira Pereira, Claudio Rodrigo Maia Santos, Bruno Alves Menezes de Lima, Ana Lang Botticelli, Ricardo Wagner Botticelli, Rodayne Khouri Nascimento, José Francisco Dalcin, Renato Afonso Salgado, Vinicius Soriano de Brito, Izabela de Souza Campos Nogueira , Maria Julia Mesquita, Flávia Martins, Youssef Elias Ammar

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 143-166

This chapter investigated the application of M-Chat method in children with autism spectrum disorder who did not have an early diagnosis, in four daycares in the city of Iranduba/AM.

Autism is one of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders known as pervasive developmental disorders. These disorders are characterized by three core deficits: impaired communication, impaired reciprocal social interaction and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors or interests. This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study, with application of a questionnaire, however, specifically to measure behavioral criteria compatible with autistic spectrum disorder.

The method used for data collection was a modified version of the checklist for Autism in Toddlers, known as M-Chat. Specifically targeted were 116 children between ages 24 and 36 months who were at scholar age compatible with Maternal 1 and 2 respectively. In order to reveal the number of children with suspected Autistic Spectrum Disorder - ASD, without early diagnosis, in daycare centers in Iranduba-AM, teachers and guardians of 116 children in four municipal daycare centers in the city of Iranduba-AM were interviewed. Results yielded those 10 possible cases of ASD existed within this group; these individuals then underwent further evaluation by specialists at Psychosocial Care Center in Iranduba - AM called CAPS where 6 diagnoses of ASD were made: 5 females and only one male; results were contradictory to previous studies citing higher prevalence rates among males. The analysis of cases diagnosed in the target population of our study revealed a prevalence of 5.17 cases per 100 children. The cause for this outcome, as well as the potential tangible augmentation in global occurrence, remains unidentified.

 Despite being regarded as a useful tool for research purposes based on our findings, it should be noted that accurate identification could not have been achieved without the involvement of attentive educators assisted by observant parents whose eagerness significantly contributed towards promoting early detection among affected children thus facilitating improved outcomes post-diagnosis intervention efforts.

Evaluation of Intertrochanteric Femur Fractures Treated with Trochanteric Fixation Nails in the Elderly

Amit Dwivedi , Veerendra Mannan, Ashishdeep Singh , Rakesh Kumar

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 167-173

This chapter assess the functional outcome of intertrochanteric fractures femur managed by trochanteric fixation nail (TFN) in the elderly population. Intertrochanteric fractures are commonly encountered by the orthopaedic surgeons especially in the elderly population with osteoporotic bones.

A retrospective study was carried out with 40 patients (30 males and 10 females) of intertrochanteric fracture femur that were managed with TFN from September 2018 to May 2019 at Yashoda Superspeciality Hospital, Nehrunagar, Ghaziabad. The sample size was taken as per the availability of the patients and according to the operating surgeon’s choice.

The mean age of patients was 64 years. The mean duration of surgery was 48±10 min. The Harris hip score was 96.90±4.60, which is better than scores from other implants used for intertrochanteric fractures femur.

TFN is more preferred for intertrochanteric fracture fixation since it requires less time immobilised, allows for early weight bearing, and has fewer complications.

Some Candles Emit Materials Hazardous for Human Health and are Indoor Air Pollutants

Ruhullah Massoudi , Amid Hamidi

Current Innovations in Disease and Health Research Vol. 1, 30 June 2023, Page 174-191

The purpose of this research was to carefully study the kind of chemicals produced by burning paraffin-based candles and compare the results by burning candles made from another source specifically from soybean. This research work is carried out in order to prove that burning paraffin candles in enclosed environment would be enormously dangerous, then it would be absolutely necessary to avoid it. Various chemicals produced by burning candles under normal condition were identified using a Perkin-Elmer TurboMass GC/MS system equipped with a NIST Library of compounds; also Shimadzu GC-2010 gas chromatograph and QP-2010s quadruple mass spectrometer. The chromatograms of emission products of various candles were tested for hazardous emissions. Variety of hazardous materials were produced from burning paraffin candles among those were benzene and toluene all of which are quite dangerous for human health. The EPA has classified benzene as known human carcinogen for all routes of exposure. The principal effect of toluene exposure is central nervous system depression. Petroleum-based candles produced various alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and some other chemicals, while soybean-based candles were seemingly clean that produced no observable peaks. Apparently, burning petroleum based candled produce unwanted materials some of which are pollutants and would be hazardous to inhale for a longer period of time.