Editor(s)

Dr. Fahmida Khan
National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.

ISBN 978-93-91312-32-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91312-46-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v8

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include internet of things, healthcare, civil works, security, block chain, transportation, partial differential equation, boundary value problem, differential operator, eigenvalues, right reflection matrix, left reflection matrix, electrophoresis, zone electrophoresis, moving boundary electrophoresis, natural zeolite, petrochemical catalysis, plant disease, deep learning, convolutional neural networks, agriculture, Fourier transform, simulator, refrigerating chamber, numerical analysis, green building, green, energy efficiency, urbanization, deformation, crashworthiness, epoxy glass fibre, automobiles. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.

 

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Chapters


A Study on the Current Trends and Evolution of IoT

A. Durga Bhavani, N. Ashwini

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 25 June 2021, Page 1-9
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v8/2663F

In the current trends Internet of Things (IoT) plays a major role. As the IoT is evolving it has been used in many areas and it has been major research area on how IoT can accomplish the needs or the requirement of the current trends. Most important areas where the research is high are in healthcare, business analysis, finance analysis, civil works, transportation industries etc. As we can absorb that the areas listed are highly used by each and every public person and hence the demand in the evolution has grown very high with huge expectations. This evaluation will be helpful to new academics to find the existing technologies and challenges in order to continue their research in the field. In this chapter we have deliberated on the evolution of IoT in the respected areas. Furthermore, we review challenges of deploying IoT in the energy sector, including privacy and security, with some solutions to these challenges such as block chain technology.

Mathematical analysis of the well-known model of a piezoelectric energy harvester is presented. The harvester is designed as a cantilever Timoshenko beam with piezoelectric layers attached to its top and bottom faces. Thin, perfectly conductive electrodes are covering the top and bottom faces of the piezoelectric layers. These electrodes are connected to a resistive load. The model is governed by a system of three partial differential equations. The first two of them are the equations of the Timoshenko beam model and the third one represents Kirchhoff’s law for the electric circuit. All equations are coupled due to the piezoelectric effect. We represent the system as a single operator evolution equation in the Hilbert state space of the system. The dynamics generator of this evolution equation is a non-selfad joint matrix differential operator with compact resolvent. The paper has two main results. Both results are explicit asymptotic formulas for eigenvalues of this operator, i.e., the modal analysis for the electrically loaded system is performed. The first set of the asymptotic formulas has remainder terms of the order O(1/n), where n is the number of an eigenvalue. These formulas are derived for the model with variable physical parameters. The second set of the asymptotic formulas has remainder terms of the order O(1/n2 and is derived for a less general model with constant parameters. This second set of formulas contains extra term depending on the electromechanical parameters of the model. It is shown that the spectrum asymptotically splits into two disjoint subsets, which we call the \(\alpha\) -branch eigenvalues and the \(\theta\)-branch eigenvalues. These eigenvalues being multiplied by “i” produce the set of the vibrational modes of the system. The \(\alpha\)-branch vibrational modes are asymptotically located on certain vertical line in the left half of the complex plane and the \(\theta\)-branch is asymptotically close to the imaginary axis. By having such spectral and asymptotic results, one can derive the asymptotic representation for the mode shapes and for voltage output. Asymptotics of vibrational modes and mode shapes is instrumental in the analysis of control problems for the harvester.

Electrophoresis in Pharamaceutical Analysis-A Review on Recent Application

M. V. Kumudhavalli, S. Gayathri, V. Nandhinipriya, B. S. Venkateswarulu, M. Kumar

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 25 June 2021, Page 62-78
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v8/10473D

Electrophoresis is a successful analytical tool for separation, and it also highly delicate to small difference in molecular charge and size of the analytes. It is one of the useful techniques because there is a large range of observation methods available. This paper is devoted to providing of brief explanation of types of electrophoresis; capillary electrophoresis, and CE based separation modes with some advantages and disadvantages along with application. This paper also includes some of the miscellaneous electrophoretic method based on capillary electrophoresis [CE- ICP-MS, CE-NMR]

In the present work Stilbite (Natural Zeolite), Na-Zeolite are exchanged with Sr(II) metal ion to study the removal of heavy metal ions from the industrial waste water. The analysis of the present zeolite and exchanged derivative has been carried out using Inductive Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The exchanged derivative is then used to prepare adsorbed derivatives with Sr(II) metal ion. The structural changes are studied by IR spectroscopy. The exchange percentage of Sr(II) metal ion with natural zeolite is maximum than Na-zeolite. In this study Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis for morphological structure and XRD technique is used to determine the unit cell structure of synthesized and natural zeolite. Also thermal studies of natural zeolite and its exchanged derivative are carried out using TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis). For the same samples FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDAX analysis is also carried out. We successfully exchanged Sr(II) metal ions with Stilbite-natural zeolite and doped Na-zeolite.  

A Novel Approach for Predicting Disease in Plant Using Hybrid Deep Convolutional Neural Network

R. Jayavadivel, V. Chandrasekar, V. Shanmugavalli

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 25 June 2021, Page 96-112
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v8/10624D

Agriculture is the most important sector in Indian economy. Plant disease detection is the major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases in plants which substantially reducing economic losses. Manual monitoring of the plant leaf disease is very critical task and also it is time consuming too. So the automated solution is necessary for plant disease identification. Now-a-days deep learning is becoming the standard technique for image classification. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection. Already few architecture has been developed by the researchers for efficient classification plant disease which includes Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network(Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional network(R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector(SSD). Alex Net, Google Net and VGG-16 are the well knows Deep Convolutional Neural Network architecture for general Image classification. But these architecture does not perform well, when multiple diseases affecting the same leaf.

To overcome this, A Hybrid Deep Convolutional Neural Network architecture with segmentation is proposed in this research work which comprises of five convolutional layer, five pooling layer and two fully connected layer. Deep convolutional Neural Networks are most commonly used to analyze visual imagery and are frequently working behind the scenes in image classification. In the proposed system of the Faster-RCNN the input images are feed to the CNN, it will increase the accuracy of images to predict the diseases from the plant leaf.

Study on the Impact of Outside Temperature on Remaining Lifespans of Cuffs of Vehicles’ Steering Systems

Radoje Vujadinovic, Vladimir Pajkovic, Milanko Damjanovic, Sreten Simovic, Petar Nikcevic

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 25 June 2021, Page 113-128
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v8/10445D

A process of a vehicle steering system failure usually starts with the failure of a cuff as its protective element. It is assumed that external factors, primarily the circumstances and the outside temperature in which a vehicle is used, affect the service life of a cuff.

This paper presents the research of the outside temperatures impact on remaining lifespans of cuffs. Cuffs exploited during significant time intervals in the southern and northern regions of Montenegro were used for this test. A simulator performing a linear harmonic oscillatory motion was made for the purposes of the experimental research, in order to obtain a number of cycles to the moments of their failure. Also, a refrigerating chamber for the simulation driving conditions at the different outside temperature was made.

Besides the experimental researches, the numerical analysis in ANSYS software environment is presented. The numerical analysis has shown that a failure of a cuff could be expected at almost the same part where it was experimentally proved, because a maximal Equivalent Von Mises stress occurs there. Therefore, the failure of a cuff is not only the consequence of the material’s fatigue due to a big number of oscillations, but it also depends the impact of outside temperatures at which the vehicle/cuff was used.

Study on Energy Efficiency and Green Activity Trends in Bangladesh

Ishita Mouri Rahman

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 25 June 2021, Page 129-144
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v8/9798D

This chapter attempts to ascertain the trends in energy consumption pattern of inhabitants of typical apartment housing in Dhaka, Bangladesh across the parameters water, gas and electricity. With the rise in urbanization and a high concentration of industries in Bangladesh, green activities are rising over the last decade. In order to enable and ensure it continues to grow, some facilitating factors are examined in this chapter. The awareness level of the inhabitants is one of the key determinants of market readiness of green practices in the country. To articulate this, the energy consumption pattern are extracted from households in Dhaka over two years across a decade in 2011 and 2019. Since the city and the environment are a symbiosis and not an in lieu of the other, a demand in rehabilitation of the city is always parallel in motion to the development of the city. The human dynamic is assessed by summarizing inhabitants’ response in a quest to collate that indeed humans are the important determinant in structuring or destroying the city.   This study over a decade can conclude that being conscious citizens and starting change with one person is the key to make a shift locally, nationally and globally.

Critical Studies on Design and Analysis of Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Glass Fibre Bumper

R. S. Mohan Kumar, A. P. Arun

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 8, 25 June 2021, Page 145-155
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/castr/v8/9800D

In terms of vehicle safety, static quality, and appearance, bumpers are essential auxiliary element. The purpose of this study is to examine the crashworthiness of an automobile bumper in order to ensure passenger safety. In the first phase, the ABS plastic bumper beam is evaluated with the basic bumper design, and in the second phase, the front section is modelled with the honeycomb structure of glass epoxy fibre to compare the deformation and energy absorbed during the impact. Based on the results of the performance analysis, we can infer that the Epoxy glass fibre bumper material is superior to the competition, and that the changed bumper design is preferable to the present bumper design. This study intends to enhance the design of a passenger car's front bumper and provides a cost-effective alternative for front bumper material and design by stressing safety-enhancing factors.