Dr. Figen Balo
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering, Firat University, Turkey.

ISBN 978-93-91595-01-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91595-09-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v14

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include data mining, environmentology, metrical linguistics, statistical analysis, text mining, gravity, antigravity, gravitational shielding, diamagnetism, superconductor, gas chromatography, geographical influences, digital library, E-Learning, Diamond-like nano-coating, anti-friction, wear-resistance, eudiometry, assimilative capacity, bootstrapping, model tricking, automotive industry, alliance, environment, Swot analysis, sustainable development, renewable energy education, teaching–learning resource materials, introducing renewable energy in schools, public understanding of renewable energy, hybrids, heterosis, CTS thin films, sol-gel spin coating process, fermented whey, antimicrobial, minimally processed vegetables, quality markers, sensory evaluation, disinfection, chlorine alternative, stream function, axisymmetric flow, myopia, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, tubular photo-reactor, arsenic removal, groundwater, flocculation, music therapy. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.


Media Promotion:


Feature Extraction of English Books on Environmentology Using Data Mining

Hiromi Ban, Takashi Oyabu

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 1-10

A system called “environmentology” has recently been attempted to address environmental issues.  In order to study environmentology, reading materials in English is considered to be indispensable.  In this paper, several English books on environmentology are investigated and compared to journalism in terms of metrical linguistics.  In short, a C++ programme is used to investigate the frequency characteristics of character- and word-appearance.  An exponential function is used to approximate these characteristics.  In addition, to determine the difficulty level and K-characteristic of each material, the percentage of Japanese junior high school required vocabulary and American basic vocabulary is calculated.  As a result, it is clearly demonstrated that English resources for environmentology have a similar tendency to literary writings in terms of character-appearance.  Furthermore, the K-characteristic values for the materials on environmentology are high, and some books are more difficult than TIME magazine. 

Gravity, antigravity, and gravitational shielding are all interconnected topics. However, we find very few papers that address this interconnected topic from a global perspective. Gravity and gravity-related topics are one of the most fascinating areas of study for scientists, and they will continue to be so for many years to come. In terms of the gravity concept, Einstein's General Relativity equation is brilliant. However, the apparent contradiction between quantum mechanics and general relativity has yet to be resolved. Edwin Hubble reported on the expanding universe in a classic article published in 1929. The antigravity effect has been demonstrated by his discovery. Many researchers have reported on gravitational shielding devices. At this point, we anticipate the development of more powerful gravitational shielding devices in the near future. Several prospective and practical concepts and ideas are presented in this review article, including a cosmic elevator, the use of sky-space for vehicles, and a modified equation for gravity.

Determining the Effect of Seasonal Variations on Fatty Acids Nutritional Profiles of Cow’s Milk Fat from Asturias. Spain

Leocadio Alonso, María V. Calvo, Javier Fontecha

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 36-43

The effect of seasonal and geographical influences on the fatty acid compositions of cow’s milk fat from Asturias (northern Spain) was studied. The majority of the fatty acids analysed presented differences (p < 0.05) due to the seasonal factor, only three fatty acids (iC14; iC16 and C18:1) did not present significant differences (p < 0.05) neither with the seasonal nor with the geographical factor. The short, medium and long chain fatty acids showed differences with the seasonal factor and only the long chain fatty acids presented differences with the geographical area. However, only the unsaturated fatty acids showed differences (p < 0.05) due to both the season of the year and the geographical area. The coefficient of correlation obtained showed a strong linear relationship between the pairs of fatty acids C4-C12, C6-C10 and C10-C12.

Role of Virtual/ Digital Libraries in E-Learning

Suvarna S. Hiremath, Somashekar Lalasangi, Shivakumar Acharya

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 44-46

Today the concept of e-learning or online learning is getting emphasis in many Organizations like academic, research, corporate or government. But method of implementation of e-learning is still a question. Many Organizations have developed separate IT based systems for e-learning. Digital Library provides a and compatible base for e-learning module. This article deals with various aspects of e-learning, Strategies for e-learning implementation, role of digital libraries in developing e-learning.

Study on Antifriction Corrosion-Resistant Nanocrystalline Diamond Coating of Parts

D. N. Okhlupin, A. V. Korolev, I. V. Sinev

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 47-55

The article presents the results of an experimental study of the corrosion resistance of the ta-C double coating of parts by PVD method with intermediate and final surface polishing with a discrete tool. The influence of regime factors on the results of polishing the ta-C coating with a discrete tool is shown, and optimal processing modes are proposed. Tests of samples in a salt bath showed that the double ta-C coating by PVD method with intermediate and final polishing ensures the absence of corrosion and coating peeling

The mathematical physics underlying the adsorption and subsequent desorption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in an effluent-loaded water body had previously rarely been studied. Although the current state of play in this field reflects the use of various analyses, the use of hat matrix and bootstrapping techniques to study the phenomenon of chemical adsorption and desorption of DO at the molecular level in a polluted waterbody has not been investigated thoroughly. This research seeks to use a matrix projector, H-hat (H), to cast virtual spectrum rays on pollutant loadings in a water body, unravelling the dynamics of chemical and biological gravitation of dissolved oxygen towards constituents of effluent pollutants in the process. This methodology is based on multivariate linear regression's ordinary least squares methodology. The proposed method is supported by a mathematical physics analysis of the phenomenon. Bootstrapping was used to calculate the means and variances of regression parameters, as well as the confidence intervals of parameter point estimates. Tricking technique adopted facilitated the development of extreme values of the dissolved oxygen and hence the supremum and infimum of assimilative capacity of the river which fluctuates with intensity of effluent loadings and season of the year (rainy, dry, and harmattan seasons). The results of bootstrapping revealed that assimilative capacity fluctuated widely from the values detected by point estimates of regression parameters, implying that tricking of regression parameters tunes up the regression model and thus fine tunes the value of assimilative capacity through necessary model parameter adjustments. The findings of this study obviate the need to use a eudiometer for the laborious direct measurement of dissolved oxygen in a body of polluted water. In this study, an elegant technique for crossing the stream where it is shallowest was developed. The method is considered as a great improvement on previous approaches that seem to dawdle.

In last year’s, there is a global financial and business crisis. The bankruptcy of small and medium-sized enterprises is increasing and the majority of them are trying to make the necessary profit to survive. In addition, it is observed that this crisis also affects giant companies that either went bankrupt or came very close to it. The following project aims at presenting and analyzing the strategic Alliance of Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi. Reference is made on the existing external environment and the drivers of the decision. More specifically the new trends in automotive industry towards mobility, connectivity and green products is discussed. Also, the model of the alliance, as well as the results, in terms of sales and development are presented. The three companies, during the previous year, developed a new co-operative scheme based on the “Leader- Follower” business model. This scheme is also critically presented. Then, SWOT analysis follows and proposals on future strategies are made. The purpose of this article is to study the merger strategies of the three companies and to what extent a vision of change, of a new better situation can be formed. Also to study whether the increased market share will create the ability of Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi to compete effectively in domestic, hourly and foreign markets.

Study on Greek Pupils’ Awareness about the Contribution of Renewable Energy in Sustainable Development

Chouliara Xanthi, Tsatiris Michael

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 86-94

Environmental issues have now reached global proportions, threatening both the quality of life and the viability of the planet.The current level of interest in finding reliable, efficient, and cost-effective solutions is impressive. In this context, it appears that broadening the development and utilisation of renewable energies is a top priority. The aim of the present paper is the investigation of students ‘views on environmental problems and renewable sources of energy. They are seen as a healthy starting point for solving the ecological problems facing the Earth. Since changing human behaviour is regarded as a capable and necessary condition for resolving our planet's major environmental problems, understanding students' knowledge and concepts about the environment and environmental problems is regarded as a primary action.  According to the results of the surveys, students have a positive attitude toward the environment and are concerned about environmental issues. However, their environmental knowledge is limited, and school is not the primary source of informing students about environmental issues.

Study on Nutritional and Genetically Studies on Some Squash Varieties

Dalia M. Hikal, M. A. Abdein

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 95-105

In this research, the role of the dried peels of some squash varieties as antioxidants when added to the processed cake were discussed. The cake contents from sugar and the sensory characteristics were recorded under the effect of different peels additions. Also, the four varieties were crossed to obtain 6 F1 hybrids according to a half diallel crosses mating design. The results showed that different squash peels improved their acceptability and their sugar contents. On the other hand, the amounts of heterosis versus mid-parents showed highly significant values for all studied traits. The estimates of heterosis versus the better parent showed highly significance for most studied traits. None of the hybrids exhibited maximum heterosis for all the traits, but significant and desirable level of heterosis over mid-parents and better parent was obtained in several hybrids for the yield and yield component traits. 

Four squash varieties belong to the species (Cucurbita pepo, L.), were: Eskandarani (P1); Siyah Kabuk (P2); Erbil Garden (P3) and Zucchino Alberallo Di Sarzana (P4) used in this study. The seeds of these varieties were obtained from different countries: (P1) from Egypt; (P2) from Turkey; (P3) from Iraq and (P4) from Italy.

Investigating the Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Cu2SnS3 Thin Films Using Spin Coating

Sabina Rahaman, Jagannatha K. B., Thyagaraj Tanjavur, . Lakshmisagar

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 106-111

Due of its electrical and optical properties, Copper Tin Sulphide is a worthy material for thin film hetero-junction solar cells. It's a ternary direct band gap p-type material with significant thin-film solar cell potential. Its constituents are innocuous, abundant in the earth crust and affordable. The goal of this paper is to define the deposition of CTS thin films on soda-lime glass substrates using a jejune sol-gel spin coating process at various temperatures. The effect of annealing temperatures on the development and properties of the films is investigated utilizing appropriate characterization methods to investigate their optical, structural, and morphological aspects. CTS has a cubic structure, according to XRD analysis. SEM analysis revealed that the facet for solar cells is suitable. After annealing, the energy bandgaps of the films decrease from 1.61eV to 1.45eV, according to optical quantifications. For semiconducting materials used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells, such energy gap magnitudes are optimal.

Industrial Waste Whey as a Low-Cost, Efficient, and Environmentally Safe Disinfectant, with Potential Applications for Minimally Processed Foodstuff

Maria Isabel S. Santos, Ana Isabel G. Lima, Laurentina Pedroso, Isabel Sousa

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 112-128

Being a fast and reliable way to access healthy products, fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are becoming a rapidly rising sector of the horticultural industry with a concomitant high consumer demand. Fresh-cut processing usually involves sanitizing steps, with chlorine washing being the general choice. Due to the health harming effects of chlorine, there has been an increasing demand for alternative disinfecting agents. Under this context, fermented cheese whey has shown potential as a natural sanitizing agent but has been poorly tested in fresh-cut produce. Furthermore, it also continues to pose an environmental problem because it still contains a high organic load.

Here we aimed at developing a low-cost, scalable fermentation protocol to produce a disinfectant from dairy waste that has very little organic content and high levels of lactic acid. Fermentation was achieved with industrial whey from ewe, goat, and cow´s milk, using a specific mesophilic-lactic acid bacteria starter mix over a more prolonged fermentation of 120 h, which yielded the highest lactic acid production and the lowest lactose content. Antibacterial activity was observed against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, plus a total of thirteen other food pathogenic and spoilage strains, and antibacterial activities were determined to be highest after 120 h.

We further validated this whey’s application as a disinfectant in shredded lettuce and compared its efficacy to that of chlorine, evaluating microbial quality, texture, color, and sensory perception, pH, and O2 and CO2 determinations. Results showed that not only was microbial quality better when using our whey solution (p < 0.05), but also the quality indicators for whey were statistically similar to those treated with chlorine. Hence, our work validates the use of an industrial waste whey as a low-cost, efficient, and environmentally safe disinfectant, with potential applications for minimally processed foodstuffs as an alternative to chlorine.

This work focuses on the analysis of the air flow through the top risers of casting using the stream function model. Casting is a method of producing complex shapes out of metal resources. Casting has two stages: the filling process, which necessitates the use of a gating system, and the solidification phase, which necessitates the use of a riser. The molten metal rapidly displaces the air in the mould cavity during casting, needing a thorough understanding of the air flow behaviour as it exits the riser.  The axisymmetric flow of air through the top risers of casting was studied using the finite element method and the stream function model. The velocity profile at any cross section is parabolic in shape, with the maximum velocity at the centre, according to the results. The finite element result converged towards the exact solution when compared to the exact solution.

Early Detection and Prevention of Myopia in Children

Nirmali Gogoi, Mihin Rinu

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 140-147

Our understanding of the dynamic interaction between the eye’s growth and its ability to adapt to maintain vision has shown that childhood myopia is a significant prediction of progressive myopia and the potentially severe ocular co morbidities associated with it. The prevalence of myopia around the world has increased recently. Previous studies have shown that 9 to 16 years of age is the fastest growing period for adolescent myopia. Other than genetic factors, environment is also an important contributing factor in the development of myopia. Previous studies showed that parental myopia, in even only one parent, leads to an increased risk for juvenile myopia. It is important for us to better understand this process and its risk factors in order to better develop a prevention and treatment strategy. This article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and current therapeutic regimens for reducing myopic progression [1].

A Brief Study on the Use of Non-Biodegradable Wastes in Concrete

S. Karthikeyan, P. Arun, M. P. Thiyaneswaran

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 148-156

Due to a lack of available resources, an increase to be changed to and increase in construction activity leads to the development of numerous novel building materials. Continuous research is being conducted in various parts of the world to identify new concrete building materials. Non-biodegradable wastes, primarily plastics, are one type of waste employed in such studies. This study combines the aspect of solid waste disposal along with the usage of wastes as a building material. Since proper disposal of non-biodegradable waste possess hectic issues to the government authorities, using them as a construction material can be an effective option. This paper summarises several studies on the use of non-biodegradable waste products as a building material. Various types of wastes are investigated, as well as the tests undertaken to use them as a construction entity.

Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater Utilizing a Semicircular Section Tubular Photo-Reactor in Continuous Mode Operation

Ramiro Escalera, Omar Ormachea

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 157-173

A practical low-cost treatment system of suitable capacity was developed in order to satisfy drinking water consumption needs of people living in small rural villages affected by arsenic contamination. The system is based on a semicircular section tubular photo-reactor which has been constructed, characterized and applied to the treatment of groundwater contaminated with As (V) by means of the solar oxidation and removal of arsenic (SORAS) technique, using ferrous and citrate salts. The solar concentrator was made from recyclable waste materials such as fluorescent lamp glass tubes and 6” PVC pipes cut in half and covered in aluminium foil. Solar radiation is concentrated to 2.8 times its natural intensity in the reactor. When compared to a fluorescent light glass tube alone and a 2-liter PET bottle, batch irradiation trials followed by controlled agitation (shear rate = 30 – 33 s-1; 20 min agitation period) revealed that the photo-reactor promotes the development of settleable floccules (Dp > 0.5 mm). c In the photo-reactor, the fluorescent lamp tube, and the PET bottle, the required irradiation times for floccule generation were 15, 25, and 60 minutes, respectively. Continuous flow investigations utilising a photo-reactor with a photo-collection area of 0.9 m2 and a hydraulic retention duration (equivalent to the irradiation period) of 15 minutes revealed that when the solution is agitated moderately, good settleability floccules form immediately (33 s-1). With a final concentration of 16.5 mg/L in decanted water, an As (V) removal efficiency of 98.36 percent was achieved. According to these findings, at UVA irradiation intensities of 50-70 W/m2, the photo-reactor can treat roughly 130 L/m2 in a 5-hour period. This daily capacity can supply safe water to a 4 - person family at a consumption rate of 30-35 L/person/day, a typical value in rural areas in the Bolivian Altiplano.

Music Therapy and its Impact on Health among Children

Nirmali Gogoi, Sumi Das

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 14, 6 August 2021, Page 174-178

Music is one of the few activities that involve using the whole brain. It is intrinsic to all cultures and can have surprising benefits not only for learning language, improving memory and focusing attention, but also for physical coordination and development. It is also effective therapy for pain, reducing blood pressure, medicine for the heart, stroke, alzheimer, autism, speeds post-stroke recovery, chronic headaches & migraine remedy. Music boosts immunity, enhances intelligence, learning and IQ. Music improves concentration, athletic performance, body movement and coordination, productivity, fatigue fighter, mood and decreases depression. Relaxing music induces sleep and reduces stress and aids relaxation. Listening to music helps control negative aspects of our personalities like worry, bias and anger. Of course, music can be distracting if it's too loud or too jarring, or if it competes for our attention with what we're trying to do. But for the most part, exposure to many kinds of music has beneficial effects.