Dr. Guang Yih Sheu
Associate Professor,
Chang-Jung Christian University, Taiwan.

ISBN 978-93-91473-58-7 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91473-66-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/castr/v12

This book covers key areas of science and technology research. The contributions by the authors include Fisher’s Linear discriminant function, wavelet gabor filter, artificial neural network, diabetes mellitus, magnesium, glycated haemoglobin, 3D printing, rapid prototyping, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, fused deposition modelling, tensile strength, brown midrib genes, phenotypic marker, segregating populations, introgression, emasculation, classical electrodynamics, two-body problem, extended Dirac radiation term, neutral equations with both delay and advanced arguments, periodic solution, fixed point theorem,, food processing plants, lipid contaminated wastewater, lipid degradation, soft substrate wearable antenna, dielectric constant, thyroid gland, cancer thyroid gland ISM band, thermal efficiency, thermal effectiveness, shell and helical coil tube, heat exchanger, aquatic environment, bacteria, chemical properties, SIR model, epidemic model, stability, differential transformation method, thermal analysis, daylight index. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology research.


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A Comparison of the Performance of Artificial Neural Network Algorithms in Facial Expression Recognition

Amira Elsir Tayfour, Altahir Mohammed, Moawia Elfaki Eldow

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 1-11

The methods for identifying facial expressions are presented in this research. The goal of this paper is to present a texture-oriented method combined with dimensional reduction that can be used to train the Single-Layer Neural Network (SLN), Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA), and Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) for identifying facial expressions. The proposed methods are known as intelligent methods because they can account for variations in facial expressions and thus perform better for untrained facial expressions. Conventional methods have limitations in that face expressions must adhere to certain guidelines. Gabor wavelet is used in different angles to extract possible textures of the facial expression to achieve expression detection accuracy. The higher dimensions of the extracted texture features are further reduced by using Fisher's linear discriminant function to improve the proposed method's accuracy. For training the proposed algorithms, Fisher's linear discriminant function is employed to turn a higher-dimensional feature vector into a two-dimensional vector. Angry, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise, and fear are some of the facial emotions that are used. The proposed algorithms are compared in terms of performance.

This is a cross-sectional study with the goal of evaluating the plasma levels of magnesium and HbA1C in (60) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and (40) apparently healthy (non-diabetic) volunteers as a control group. The patients were recruited from various hospitals and centres. The test and control groups were matched in terms of age and gender. A spectrophotometer was used to assess magnesium levels in the blood (Bio system Company reagents).The levels of HbA1C were determined using reagents and instruments from NycoCard company. SPSS was used to examine the data.The results revealed a considerable decreasein the mean of the plasma levels of magnesium of the diabetic group when compared with the control group (p. value <0.05), whereas HbA1C were increased in diabetic patients (type 2) compared to the control group (p. value <0.05). However, among diabetic patients, there was a strong negative correlation between magnesium plasma levels and HbA1C levels, as well as a weak negative correlation between magnesium plasma levels and duration of disease.Plasma levels of magnesium have a strong negative correlation with HbA1C levels, the findings demonstrated thatuncontrolled diabetic patients are at higher risk of hypomagnesaemia compared to controlled patients.

On the Tensile Strength of ABS Produced by Fused Deposition Modelling Process

Kaushik V. Prasad, J. Deepak, H. Adarsha

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 22-28

3D printing is a useful technique in the manufacturing of composites. Parts can be manufactured with high accuracy, low cost, and customizable geometry. Among the various methods, the fused deposition modeling (FDM) is found to be the most versatile method used to produce composites of thermoplastics. This method is highly suitable for producing parts which are complex and have intricate details. The FDM process is gaining popularity owing to the simplicity of the process and minimum tooling required for manufacturing the parts. In the present work we discuss the effect of varying raster angle and layer thickness on the tensile properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). It is found that as layer thickness increases it reduces the tensile strength also maximum tensile strength is observed in case of specimens having 60o as raster angle.

Studies on Brown Midrib 6 and 12 Genes Introgression in Two Nigerien and One Malian Sorghum Varieties: A Practical Guide to Young Scientists with Limited Molecular Facility

Ousmane Seyni Diakité, Mamadou Aissata, Sissoko Aliou, Sanogo Sekouba, Mamoutou Kouressy, Vaksmann Michel, Daniel K. Dzidzienyo, Danquah Eric, Tongoona Pangirayi, Karim Traoré, Niaba Teme

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 29-41

Introgression of bmr genes from less adapted donor parent to well adapted high yielding biomass varieties with poor nutritional value is very important for sustainable cattle feeding during pasture scare time in the Sahel. The main objective of this work was to introgress bmr6 and bmr12 genes in Nigerien and Malian sorghum varieties background for dual purpose grain and biomass potential. The plant material was composed of two improved sorghum varieties (Sepon82 and Kalla Kéné) and El mota a farmer preferred variety as recurrent parents. bmr donor parents were redlan bmr6, Tx630 bmr12 and Wheatland bmr12. The hand emasculation technique was used to introgress bmr genes in recurrent parents to produce F3 and BC1F3 populations at Sotuba research Station in Mali from January 2016 to June 2017. This technique is still very useful in genes introgression for sorghum segregating populations development. Anthocyanin pigment and heterosis effects were key phenotypic traits to identify F1 and BC1F1 plants during the population development. Anthocyanin allowed the identification of F1 plants in a cross involving anthocyanin (purple plant) and tan plants, while for both tan plants cross, heterosis effect was major key to discriminate F1 from parental lines and bmr segregation in F2 to ascertain successful crosses. The x2 test was used to analyze bmr segregation ration. Segregation ratios of bmr plants in F2 and BC1F2 showed a good fit of a single recessive gene (3:1). bmr 6 and 12 genes were successfully transferred to three recurrent parents varieties which are at F4 and BC1F3 generation for grain and biomass yields potential tests in Niger during the 2017 cropping season.

Periodic Solution of Two-Body Problem of Classical Electrodynamics with Radiation Terms

Vasil G. Angelov

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 42-68

The present paper is an improved version of a previous one, where we have proved an existence-uniqueness of periodic motion of two-body problem of classical electrodynamics. The system of equation of motion obtained is of a neutral type with respect to the unknown velocities with both retarded and advanced arguments depending on the unknown trajectories. We use an operator introduced in a previous our paper. Its fixed point is a periodic solution of the problem in question. An existence-uniqueness of a periodic solution means an existence of closed orbits. But this means that Bohr-Sommerfeld stationary states are a consequence of classical electrodynamics. Radiation terms are chosen such so as not to disturb the stability of the hydrogen atom.

High lipid (fats and oils) concentration contained in wastewater causes clogged drain pipes and inhibits the activity of microbes in biological wastewater treatment systems. The lipids degradation capability of lipid-degrading bacteria was investigated for possible application in treatment of lipids-contaminated wastewater. A total of 102 bacterial isolates were isolated from 43 vegetable oil- contaminated wastewater samples of many food processing plants and restaurants in 5 districts of CanTho city, Vietnam on LB medium. Among of them, 61 isolates formed clear zones on Tw20 medium. Out of the 61 bacterial isolates, 11 formed large halos which had the potential ability to degrade vegetable oil in the contaminated wastewater. These 11 baterial isolates were identified by PCR technique and DNA sequencing. The results of DNA sequencing were compared with GenBank database of NCBI by BLAT N software. The DNA sequences of selected isolates showed high degrees of similarity to those of the GenBank references (between 97% and 99%). Two isolates belonged to Bacilli (18.18 %) and nine isolates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (81.82%). Based on Pi value (nucleotide diversity), Gammaproteobacteria group had the highest Theta values. Theta value (per sequence) from S of SNP for DNA polymorphism were calculated for each group and the 11 lipid-degrading strains had high genetic diversity. The results proposed Acinetobacteria soli strain AL3 as a potential bioproduct for wastewater treatment because of its high ability of lipid degradation and biosafety.

The article brings out an innovative Z shape wearable patch antenna that was designed over textile also the other type of substrates to test its performance over ISM (industrial, scientific, medicine) band of microwave frequencies was discussed. Wearable antenna has the wearable and textile properties bending in 2D, which shows the flexibility for the wearable electronic devices. Since the performance of the antenna is working on ISM band, it is perfectly suitable for biomedical applications. In the proposed antenna silk substrate is chosen for implementation because of its low SAR and is placed on the thyroid gland to detect the cancer cells. The performances of the antenna were varied, when it is placed on the thyroid gland of the human tissue, Tissue properties were considered and analyzed within and without cancer affected areas. Since cancer cells are more water content tissues, the gain and electrical conductivity performance were found changed. While placing the antenna on thyroid gland it is also observed that there is a change in working frequency of the Z-patch silk substrate wearable antenna. Hence by using this proposed antenna on human body and by appraising its results, the presence or absence of thyroid cancer can be detected.  The simulated results have been tabulated and measured. The results of the fabricated proposed antenna S11 have been shown by using the network analyzer.

The case study is about obtaining the flow rate and saturation temperature of steam that makes it possible to heat a solution of water and ammonia nitrate (ANSOL) in a shell and helical coil tube heat exchanger, within a time interval, without that the crystallization of the ANSOL solution occurs. The desired production per batch of the solution is 5750 kg in 80 minutes. The analysis uses the concepts of efficiency and effectiveness to determine the heat transfer rate and temperature profiles that satisfy the imposed condition within a certain degree of safety and with the lowest possible cost in steam generation. Intermediate quantities necessary to reach the objective are the Reynolds number, Nusselt number, and global heat transfer coefficient for the shell and helical coil tube heat exchanger. Initially, the water is heated for a specified period and, subsequently, the ammonium nitrate is added to a given flow in a fixed mass flow rate.

Study on Adhesion of Bacterio-contaminants to Fragments of Rocks Immersed in Water: Impact of Some Chemical Properties of the Medium and Intrinsic to the Cells

Olive Vivien Noah Ewoti, Daniel Ebang Menye, Raoul Polycarpe Tuekam Kayo, Luciane Marlyse Moungang, Antoine Tamsa Arfao, Samuel Davy Baleng, Yves Yogne Poutoum, Moïse Nola

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 118-138

A study was carried out in an aquatic microcosm with the aim of evaluating the importance of some chemical factors of the environment and some parameters intrinsic to cells, on the retention of bacterial contaminants in the aquatic environment on solid substrates. The rocky substrates used were sandstone, basalt, granite and micaschist. Four rocks with different petrographic and mineralogical structures. Bacteria isolated by standard techniques and used for adhesion testing were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae and Enterococcus faecalis. These bacteria are rod, comma, and spherical in shape, respectively, and may or may not have a flagellum. In addition, this ciliature, when it exists, can be single or in a tuft and in a polar position or over the entire cell. The chemical parameters of the medium which varied were the pH, the concentrations of BOM and of salts. The incubation periods to allow the bacteria to adhere to the substrates ranged from 180min to 1440min. The adhered cells were then detached in sterile condition by introducing the rocks successively into 3 test tubes containing 10 ml of sterile physiological water (0.85% NaCl). It appears that bacteria contained in surface or groundwater can adhere to the surfaces of inorganic rocks at varying concentrations. The adhesion and retention of bacteria contributes to the natural purification of wastewater. P. aeruginosa, V. cholerae and E. faecalis adhered undergo temporal variations. Adhesion rates overall vary from 11 to 12.44x103 cells/cm2/h, with E. faecalis being the bacteria which adheres more quickly due to gravity alone. These variations of rates are linked to environmental conditions and to the chemical properties of rocks and soil. The presence of flagellum plays a dual role in approaching and relaunching the bacteria from the substrates.

Study on SIR Epidemic Model with Constant Vaccination: A Differential Transformation Approach

S. F. M. Ibrahim, Soad Moftah Ismail

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 139-149

Over the years, diligent vaccination campaigns have resulted in high levels of permanent immunity against the childhood disease among the population. Childhood diseases are the most common form of infectious diseases. In this article SIR model that monitors the temporal dynamics of a childhood disease in the presence of preventive vaccine is developed. The qualitative analysis reveals the vaccination reproductive number . for disease control and eradication. The aim of this paper is to apply the differential transformation method (DTM) which is used to compute an approximation to the solution of the non-linear system of differential equations governing the problem. Graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively to illustrate the solutions.

Use of natural daylight in the building is energy saving with respect to illumination levels and health benefits. However in, the hot and dry climatic zone increase in daylight availability may result into thermal ingress. This might lead to excess energy conservation. The aim of this paper is to evolve the methodology which could be used as a pre design tool for assessing the lighting provisions and thermal performance of spaces within buildings adopted by designers during the design process. The field measurements were conducted on the liveable spaces of a dwelling unit of the Nagpur region. Simulation studies using Ecotect Analysis 2011 was conducted for both illumination and thermal energy. The field measurements were compared with the simulated results. It has been found that the percentage difference (PD) between the Ecotect measurements (EM) and field measurements (FM) for both thermal loads and an illuminance level was less than 15%, the simulated model was considered precise for further study. The result imply that the simulated model would be ample for designers to evaluate the parameters associated to wall to window ratio, shading devices with respect to orientation of the building which helps to achieve the optimum useful daylight index.

Study on Codon Modulo Cryptosystem for Privacy Preservation of Vertically Partitioned Outsourced Data

M. Yogasini, B. N. Prathibha

Current Approaches in Science and Technology Research Vol. 12, 21 July 2021, Page 162-175

Data passes crossways the cloud by the methods of assorted way. It is fundamental to safeguard the data from unapproved users to access the information in any structure. The information refuge is guaranteed by changing a plain text into an incomprehensible configuration by encoding text utilizing cryptographic calculations and these techniques are espoused for scrambling the text to made sure about their data from aggressors to guarantee data protection. Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) is an encryption method utilized to provide security to the distributed computing data. In this paper Codon Modulo Cryptography-based Algorithm for vertically partitioned cloud data is applied to provide security for the transactional data. Affiliation Rule Mining and Frequent Itemset strategies are applied to aggregate the Association Rules among the Frequent Items in a scrambled exchange of vertically partitioned information base. The exhibition of Rule Mining calculations such as Apriori, FP-Growth and Eclat with the proposed Codon Modulo algorithm is contrasted with the conventional Homomorphic Encryption. The result exhibits that the proposed algorithm outperforms the Homomorphic Encryption in performance with a high-security level.