Editor(s)
Dr. LUO, Ching-Ruey (Edward)
National Chi Nan University, Taiwan.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-972413-8-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-972413-0-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/caert/v1

This book covers key areas of engineering research and technology. The contributions by the authors include biodiesel; human health; biofuel, ignition and combustion characteristics of blended fuels, grey relational analysis, aluminium matrix composites, AA7068/TiC metal matrix composites, titanium carbide (TiC) particles, city development, geographic information systems, advanced planning systems, management information systems, development planning, forest fires, safeguard wildlife, machine learning, ecosystems and biodiversity, corona charge deposition technique, microchip technology, junction field effect transistor, front-end of-line fabrication, SIO2 film, high-frequency simulator structure software, square patch antennas at 2.4ghz, radiation pattern, minimally-intrusive fiber-optic sensing system, high-enthalpy rocket plumes, Wien's law, dwell-time, anti-seismic design method, wind forces, seismic performance, soil-structure interaction. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers, and  academicians in the field engineering research and technology.

 

Media Promotion:


Chapters


A minimally-intrusive optical sensing system for high-temperature/high-velocity gas-generator exhaust plumes has been developed. The overall goal of this effort is to perform a feasibility assessment of the associated non-intrusive measurement technologies and to establish a roadmap for the most effective practice. For this application glass fiber-optic cables, acting as radiation conduits, are inserted through the combustion chamber or nozzle wall and look directly into the flow core. The cable transmits data from the flame zone to externally-mounted spectrometers. In order to capture the full-optical spectrum, a blended dual-spectrum system was employed, with one spectrometer system tuned for best-response across the visible-light and near-infrared spectrum, and one spectrometer tuned for best-response in the near- and mid-infrared spectrum. The dual-band sensors are radiometrically-calibrated and the sensed-spectra are spliced together using an optimal Wiener filtering algorithm to perform the deconvolution. The merged spectrum is subsequently curve-fit to Planck's black-body radiation law, and flame temperature is calculated from associated curve maxima (Wien's law). The presented fiber-optic sensing systems performs a function that is analogous to Raman spectroscopy. The system is non-contact and does not interfere with the heat transfer processes. In this report data collected from a lab-scale (200 N) hybrid rocket system are analyzed using the described method. Optically-sensed flame-temperatures are correlated to analytical predictions, and shown to generally agree within a few degrees. Additionally, local maxima in the optical spectra are shown to correspond to emission frequencies all species known to exist in the hybrid combustion plume. The presented data makes clear that the approach works equally when the fiber optic protrudes from a solid boundary into the flow field. This result opens up the possibility for the presented fiber-optic techniques to be applied for a wide swath of gas-generators, including gas turbine engines.

Forest Fire Occurrence Prediction Using Machine Learning

Helen Prabha, Saranya, Manisha, Sowmya

Current Approaches in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1, 17 April 2024, Page 70-78
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/caert/v1/8162E

Forest fires annually devastate vast areas of forest cover, causing extensive damage to flora and fauna, and driving numerous species to extinction. Machine Learning offers a promising avenue for predicting forest fires, potentially enabling proactive measures to safeguard wildlife. This research focuses on predicting forest fire likelihood based on oxygen, temperature, and humidity levels at a given location. The proposed concept involves developing a website that accepts user inputs for these parameters and provides real-time forest fire probability predictions. The study aims to detect and alert forest fire occurrences using dataset-derived temperature, humidity, and oxygen values, culminating in the creation of a web interface for forest fire detection and monitoring.

The present study aimed to understand the ignition and combustion characteristics of a single droplet of blended fuels of Kemiri Sunan (reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw) biodiesel and ethanol in several levels of ambient pressure. Petroleum diesel, like fossil fuels, releases greenhouse gases (CO2) into the atmosphere, which increases the risk to human health and the environment as a result of global warming. Bio-oil from seeds of Kemiri Sunan (reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw) plant is particularly attractive to be studied since its high potential as an alternative to biodiesel. The ambient pressures of the burning chamber were varied at 1, 3, and 5 bars. The fuels were prepared by mixing the biodiesel with the ethanol at concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% vol/vol. The single droplets of blended fuels were suspended using a micro-syringe on the tip of the thermocouple. With an electrical heater, it was lit and burned. A high-speed camera was used to record the single drops' ignition and combustion processes. It was discovered that as ambient pressure rises and the amount of ethanol in blended fuels increases, the droplet's igniting delay decreases. Also, the burning rate of blended droplets increased with increasing biodiesel concentration and pressure. The maximum droplet temperature slightly increased during the combustion with the increasing ethanol concentration, but not with increasing ambient pressure. In the current investigation, the phenomena of micro explosion also have been observed.

The present study highlights about multi-Objective Optimization of Dry sliding wear parameters of Aluminium Matrix Composites (AA7068/TiC) using Grey Relational Analysis. Metal matrix composites are supplanting conventional materials due to their prevalent properties like high strength of weight ratio, high specific stiffness, high fracture toughness, high thermal stability and wear resistance etc. AA7068 is one of the industrially accessible strongest aluminium alloys that was taken as a matrix material and the reinforcement is titanium carbide (TiC) particles of 4 µm size. In this investigation, Al-TiC composites consist of TiC particles of an average size 4µm whose wt% of reinforcement varied from 2 to 10 wt% in steps of 2 wt%, composites have been prepared using the stir casting technique. Dry-sliding wear experiments have been performed on pin-on-disc apparatus according to Taguchi’s L25 in the design of experiments. The parameters considered are wt% of TiC, rotational speed (Nr), load (P) and sliding velocity (Vs). The motivation behind the Analysis of Variance is to figure out the process parameter that strongly influences the wear characteristics of AA7068/TiC MMCs. This can be accomplished by estimating the amount of the sum of squared deviations from the total mean of the grey relational grade for each process parameter and their error variance. Optimum combinations of parameters have been identified based on grey relational grade (GRG) to solve the wear response of AA7068/TiC MMCs. Also, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is applied to recognize the main factors affecting the wear response. Confirmation experiments with optimum conditions show that the results were nearer to the anticipated outcomes. The confirmation experiments confirm that the proposed GRA can track down the optimal combination of process parameters with multiple quality characteristics.

This article presents a comprehensive analysis of a square patch antenna designed using high-frequency simulator structure software (HFSS), specifically operating at 2.41 GHz of central frequency. Through meticulous evaluation across the operational band of 2.36 GHz to 2.47 GHz, crucial parameters such as Gain, return loss, and radiation pattern are examined. Emphasizing the significance of the 2.4 GHz range within the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band, this frequency spectrum serves as a cornerstone for various wireless communication applications, encompassing Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and Zigbee technologies. Consequently, the proposed structure showcases its practicality and relevance within the ISM band, addressing the escalating need for dependable wireless connectivity within contemporary technological frameworks.

With the advent of new materials, the microchip industry is investigating new architecture to further scale down the device size. New technologies are on the way to achieving this goal without compromising the device’s performance and benefits. In this new scenario, corona charge deposition technique (CCDT) has become an indispensable part of the thin film industry. Due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of corona charge ions, they are effectively being used to improve the device properties. This technique is in use for device characterization and testing.  Whole wafer mapping of the SiO2 film on silicon can be carried out employing this technique. Failure analysis of junction field effect transistor (JFET) has clearly established that a device is good by design, not because it is free from surface ions. CCDT is also useful to understand the electrical properties of insulators and other materials. Isotope tracer structures were used to study the corona induced relaxation mechanism in SiO2. Apparently, the stress relaxation mechanism was found to be the deciding factor in oxidant transport through the film. Corona-Kelvin non-contact metrology or the C-KM is a recent development in this field for the characterization of silicon, new materials and dielectrics. It is the newest technology for device cooling. Corona based “ionic wind” is the next generation cooling fan for electronic devices. Different aspects of design and technology are under investigation. Corona Discharge based electrostatic spray coating technology is under investigation for advanced electrode processing of Li-ion batteries.  In this paper, the status of all these fields of applications of corona charge deposition technique in the semiconductor industry has been reviewed. Further, the methodology involved is described. The advances as well as challenges and improvements including future research are also discussed.

The Role of Technology to Enhance City Development by Optimizing Strategy Formulation and Implementation

Rutuja Deshmukh Jagtap, D. P. Singh, Ekta Singh, Pramod Shinde

Current Approaches in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1, 17 April 2024, Page 139-156
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/caert/v1/3557G

City development plans play a crucial role in shaping the urban development and landscape, yet it is seen that their successful implementation often faces challenges. This study explores the integration of technological interventions to enhance the formulation and execution of strategies in city development planning. By leveraging Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Management Information Systems (MIS), and Advanced Planning Systems (APS), this research aims to address key barriers and improve the effectiveness of urban planning initiatives. Through a review of 131 articles, significant insights are gained into the potential of technology to streamline processes, improve coordination among stakeholders, and facilitate monitoring and evaluation efforts. The findings highlight the importance of bridging the gap between policy formulation and on-the-ground implementation through innovative technological solutions.

This study identifies critical research gaps and proposes future directions for advancing the field of urban planning through technological innovation.

Ultimate Anti-Seismic Design Method: A Novel Approach

Ioannis N. Lymperis

Current Approaches in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 1, 17 April 2024, Page 157-201
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/caert/v1/7702C

The design mechanisms and methods of the invention are intended to minimize problems related to the safety of structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and strong winds. The anchoring mechanism can also be used for other uses such as supporting wind turbines on the ground and preventing deformation of the wind turbine trunk by wind forces, supporting dams, tunnels, and loose slopes, and bridge piers, and for any work requiring support on the gr and rock. In seismic excitation it achieves the control of the deformations of the structure. Damage and deformation are closely related concepts since the control of deformations also controls the damage. The inertial stresses of the structure are transferred to the ground by the design method, which applies artificial compression to the ends of all longitudinal reinforced concrete walls and simultaneously connects the ends of the walls to the ground using ground anchors positioned at the depths of the boreholes. This external force acts as a catalyst for the structure's response to seismic displacements. In order to prevent any failures brought on by inelastic deformation, the wall with the artificial compression gains a dynamic, bigger active cross-section as well as strong axial and torsional stiffness. By connecting the ends of all walls to the ground, we control the eigenfrequency of the structure and the ground during each seismic loading cycle, preventing inelastic displacements. At the same time, we ensure the strong bearing capacity of the foundation soil and the structure. By designing the walls correctly and placing them in proper locations, we prevent the torsional flexural buckling that occurs in asymmetrical floor plans, and metal and tall structures. Compression of the wall sections at the ends and their anchoring to the ground mitigates the transfer of deformations to the connection nodes, strengthens the wall section in terms of base shear force and shear stress of the sections, and increases the strength of the cross-sections to the tensile at the ends of the walls by introducing counteractive forces.  While connecting the walls to the foundation not only disperses inertial forces to the ground but also inhibits wall rotation, preserving the structural integrity of the beams, the use of tendons within the ducts prevents longitudinal shear in the overlay concrete. By sealing the entrance of the growing fissures, prestressing at the bilateral ends of the walls returns the structure to its initial position even in cases of inelastic displacements.