Editor(s)

Dr. Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan Hassanien
Professor,
Department of Biochemistry, Zagazig University, Egypt.

ISBN 978-93-91215-29-3 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-91215-37-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8

This book covers key areas of chemistry and biochemistry research. The contributions by the authors include phthalocyanine, X-ray reflectivity, organic aromatic compounds, metal complexes, nitrogen oxides sensors, UV-Visible spectroscopy, monosaccharides, configuration elucidation, chain shortening, ends equalization, ends reversal, biological activity, nucleosides, Hantzsch reaction, pharmaceuticals, cyclization reaction of acyclic precursors, intramitochondrial liver enzyme, cyanide detoxification, rhodanese activities, amylases, celulases, biotechnology, bacterial metabolism, estrogen receptors, estrogens, nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, vasodilatation, uterine artery, pregnancy, preeclampsia, flotation, froth height, entrainment, true flotation, particle size, maceration, soxhlet, antibacterial and antioxidant activity. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of chemistry and biochemistry research.


Chapters


Transition Metal Phthalocyanines as Nitrogen Oxydes Sensors

Anna Maria Paoletti, Giovanna Pennesi, Gentilina Rossi, Amanda Generosi, Barbara Paci, Valerio Rossi Albertini

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 1-20
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/7411D

Phthalocyanines are organic aromatic compounds, whose metal complexes are used in many technological and industrial applications, ranging from active element in catalysis and organic solar cells, photosensitizing substance in light therapies and dye for “denim” blue jeans.

The present study is devoted to the description and comprehension of phenomena connected with the sensing behaviour towards NO2 of films of two transition metal phthalocyanines, namely titanium bis-phthalocyanine and ruthenium phthalocyanine.

Spectroscopic, conductometric, and morphological features recorded during exposure to the gas are explained and the mechanisms of gas-molecule interaction are also elucidated. The investigation is performed by applying standard techniques, that is conductrometry and UV-Visible spectroscopy, together with an unusual one, the Energy Dispersive X-ray Reflectivity. Indeed, the latter turns out to be a powerful tool for monitoring morphological parameters, such as thickness and roughness, that are demonstrated to be sensitive variables for monitoring the exposure of thin films of sensor materials to NO2 gas.

En Block Approach of Structure Elucidation of Linear Isomeric Aldohexoses as Related to Aldaric (Saccharic) Acids: An Advance Study

Dumitru Petru I. Iga, Dumitru Popescu, Valentin I. R. Niculescu

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 21-31
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/9583D

The Structure elucidation of the 16 isomeric linear aldohexoses is approached en block, in a clear, logic, concise, coherent, manner. The main premise, or paradigm, of this paper is structure elucidation of (+)-tartaric acid by Bijvoet. Other premise is a preparative method elaborated by Baer and Fischer, whose instructive potential is disclosed for the first time in this paper. It concerns elucidation of configuration of C-2 by using di-O-isopropylidenic derivatives of hexitols. Moreover, the whole array of experimental methods elaborated and used by E. Fischer in structure elucidation of monosaccharides are also extant in this chapter.

Synthesis of 8-trifluloromethyl quinazolin-2,4-(1H,3H)-dione 2. which have been ribosylated by coupling with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl- -D-ribofuranose 4 by using the silylation method, afforded mixture b-and a-anomeric of the benzoylated nucleoside derivatives 5 and 6, respectively. In this review, quinazolin-2,4-(3H)-dione nucleosides containing trifluloromethyl group were designed as part of our continuing interest in the synthesis of new nucleosides as expected their biological activity. Debenzoylation of each of 5 and 6 by sodium metal in dry methanol to afford the corresponding free nucleosides 7 and 8 respectively. The structures of the newly synthesis compounds have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectral data.

The Appropriate Acyclic Precursors to Build Biologically Active 5-acylamino-1,3-thiazoles

Mara Tomassetti, Gabriele Lupidi, Serena Gabrielli, Federico Vittorio Rossi, Samuele Lillini, Gianluca Bianchini, Andrea Aramini, Daniele Canestrari, Enrico Marcantoni

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 40-56
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/9618D

The aim of this opinion article is to highlight the trends in the development of efficient catalyst-free synthesis of the Hantzsch polysubstituted 1,3-thiazoles. They are heterocycles of particular importance in the pharmaceutical industry, and the strategy involves the cyclization reaction of acyclic precursors with minimum auxiliary substances, toxic reagents, organic solvents, and disposal problems.

 

Allium cepa Linn Improved Rhodanese Activity and Half-life of Cyanide in the Blood

Fausat Kikelomo Ola-Mudathir

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 57-63
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/8274D

Rhodanese is an intramitochondrial liver enzyme that detoxifies cyanide. Allium cepa (Onion); rich in organosulphur may provide sulphur for the detoxification of cyanide. The possible effects of Allium cepa on rhodanese activity during cyanide toxicity was investigated in vitro and in vivo in male Wistar rats. In vivo experiments studied the effects of methanol extract of onion (MEAC) and sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) on rhodanese activity, urine thiocyanate concentration and effects of MEAC, raw onion and Na2S2O3 on half-life of potassium cyanide (KCN). In vitro experiments studied the effects of MEAC and essential oil of onion on rhodanese activities in the liver cells. Results of the in vivo study revealed that administration of Na2S2O3 in the cyanide treated group enhance activity of rhodanese, while the extract did not enhance it. The results of the in vitro study showed that essential oil of onion increased rhodanese activity 10 fold that of the extract. The half-life of KCN was significantly lower (p<0.05) with consumption of raw onion when compared with control. The results suggest that Allium cepa enhance cyanide detoxification by enhancing rhodanese enzyme activity and by reducing the half-life of cyanide in the blood.   

Enzymatic Potential of Rhizobacteria from the Amazon

Cassiane Minelli-Oliveira, Paulo Rocha de Oliveira Jr, André Luis Willerding, Luiz Antonio de Oliveira

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 64-72
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/9432D

Currently, about 6000 enzymes are known, but the amount is much higher than this number, especially if we consider regions of high biological diversity as in the Amazon rainforest. In plant rhizosphere, the chances of finding pathogenic bacteria in humans are very low, providing a safe genetic resource to be exploited biotechnologically. Research has indicated some products and enzymes of economic interest present in rhizobacteria isolated from Amazonian environments, such as plant growth hormones, phosphate solubilization, amylases, proteases, lipases, which could serve as raw material for the installation of bioindustries in the region. Most of our studies with the Amazonian microbiota aim to evaluate its functional genes, of economic and ecological interest. Enzymes such as cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases, phosphatases, nitrogenases, lipases, chitinases, pectinases are of agronomic and forestry interest, found in regional microorganisms. The Amazonian microbiota has a high diversity and high biotechnological potential. This high microbial potential needs to be better known so that it can effectively contribute to regional and national development through the world market for enzymes and other metabolites of economic interest.

Estrogen Receptors and Estrogen-Induced Uterine Vasodilation in Pregnancy: A Review

Jin Bai, Yan Li, Ronald R. Magness, Dong-bao Chen

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 73-129
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/9373D

Normal pregnancy is associated with dramatic increases in uterine blood flow to facilitate the bidirectional maternal–fetal exchanges of respiratory gases and to provide sole nutrient support for fetal growth and survival. The mechanism(s) underlying pregnancy-associated uterine vasodilation remain incompletely understood, but this is associated with elevated estrogens, which stimulate specific estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent vasodilator production in the uterine artery (UA). The classical ERs (ER\(\alpha\) and ER\(\beta\)) and the plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled ER (GPR30/GPER) are expressed in UA endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, mediating the vasodilatory effects of estrogens through genomic and/or nongenomic pathways that are likely epigenetically modified. This chapter aims to summarize the literature on UA ERs with a focus on their roles in mediating the local UA production of vasodilators by estrogens and pregnancy and to deliberate on the potential clinic implications of dysregulated ER-mediated estrogen signaling in hypertensive pregnancy complications. The activation of these three ERs by estrogens enhances the endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO), which has been shown to play a key role in uterine vasodilation during pregnancy. However, the local blockade of NO biosynthesis only partially attenuates estrogen-induced and pregnancy-associated uterine vasodilation, suggesting that mechanisms other than NO exist to mediate uterine vasodilation. We summarize here the literature on the role of NO in ER-mediated mechanisms controlling estrogen-induced and pregnancy-associated uterine vasodilation and our recent work on a “new” UA vasodilator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) that has dramatically changed our view of how estrogens regulate uterine vasodilation in pregnancy.

The Influence of Froth Height in Column Flotation of Kaolin Ore: An Advance Study

Fernando Pita

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 130-145
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/10299D

In froth flotation, the froth height, the entrainment and the drainage of particles affects recovery and grade. The aim of the froth phase is to transport all the hydrophobic particles that reach the pulp/froth interface into the floated and the drainage of the hydrophilic particles into the pulp. In this study, the influence of the froth height in the reverse flotation of kaolinitic ore was analyzed based on the recovery by entrainment and by true flotation of iron, titanium and manganese oxides (FeO, TiO2 and MnO). Also, the influence of the particle size in drainage process was analyzed. A successfully flotation process involves minimization of the entrainment and maximization of the true flotation. The recovery by entrainment and by true flotation of the three oxides is inversely proportional to the froth height. The entrained particles are drained easier in the froth phase than the floated particles, since they are not attached to the bubbles. The recovery by entrainment and drainage of the entrained material is similar for the three oxides. However, the recovery by true flotation and drainage of the floated material is different for the three oxides. For true flotation in the three oxides, the finest fraction presents smaller froth zone recovery. FeO has the lowest recovery, as consequence of the minor contribution of its hydrophobic minerals, while MnO has the greatest recovery values. For the entrained material, the finest fraction (<25 µm) is entrained easier, but it is also drained easier, meaning larger mobility of these particles in the froth zone. For the true floated material, the finest fraction (<25 µm) is drained easier indicating larger mobility of these particles in the froth; however, the coarsest fraction (>63 µm) is drained easier than the two intermediate fractions (+25-45 µm and +45-63 µm), indicating weaker attachment of the larger particles to the bubbles.

Screening of Punica granatum Seeds for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity with Various Extracts: A Brief Analytical Study

Naeem Hasan Khan, Adriana Lee Tze Ying, Candy Goo Zhi Tian, Ooi Wei Yi, Shantini Vijayabalan

Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 8, 22 June 2021, Page 146-159
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cacb/v8/2472F

Punica granatum plant fruits best in areas with long, hot and dry summers (90°F) and cooler winters. Genus name comes from the Latin name contracted from Punicum malum. A 100-g serving of pomegranate seeds provides 12% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin C, 16% DV for vitamin K and 10% DV for folate. Pomegranate seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV) which is entirely contained in the edible seeds. People who choose to discard the seeds forfeit nutritional benefits conveyed by the seed fiber and micronutrients [1]. The most abundant phytochemicals in pomegranate the hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins formed when ellagic acid and/or gallic acid binds with a carbohydrate to form pomegranate ellagitannins, also known as punicalagins [2,3]. The red color of juice can be attributed to anthocyanins. Generally, an increase in juice pigmentation occurs during fruit ripening [4]. The phenolic content of pomegranate juice is adversely affected by processing and pasteurization techniques [5].

The different extracts (maceration with ethanol and hexane separately and soxhlet with ethanol) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity (using agar well diffusion method). Penicillin and ampicillin were used as positive control. Ethanol soxhlet extracts showed good inhibitory effect over growth of all the seven strains of bacteria such that zone of inhibition was detected. Ethanol maceration extract only possessed antimicrobial activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus whereas hexane extract do not showed any antimicrobial activity. IC50, the half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration for extracts of Punica granatum seed was calculated by using the equations obtained from the graphs. For the antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging assay was performed. IC50, the half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration was measured in this study. Ethanol soxhlet (ES) extract showed the lowest IC50 value (1350.27 \(\mu\)g/mL); hexane extract (HM) showed IC50 value of 3005.66 \(\mu\)g/mL and ethanol maceration extract (EM) showed highest IC50 value (4852.26 \(\mu\)g/mL). To accomplish the aims, the following objectives were designed such as:

  • Authentication of plant material.
  • Evaluation of antimicrobial potential and antioxidant activity of various extracts of Punica granatum