Recent Approach on Determination of Impurities and Degradation Products/Causes for m-Iodobenzylguanidine Using HPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Current Advances in Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol. 3,
4 March 2021,
m-Iodobenzylguanidine hemisulfate (MIBGHS) is a precursor in the preparation of radioiodine-labeled m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), which is used as a radio-imaging and therapy agent for neuroendocrine tumors and myocardial sympathetic nerve function. To ensure the quality and efficacy of the medicine and prevent side effects, the precursor purity, source of impurity, and derivatives have to be determined. In this study, the purity of synthesized MIBGHS and the amount of contaminants therein were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection, gradient eluted by ammonium formate aqueous solution and acetonitrile mobile phase on both C8 and phenyl type column. The impurities were identified on the basis of molecular and fragmented ion mass spectra using of electrospray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed the presence of process- related impurities including m-bromobenzylguanidine (MBrBG) and overreacted byproducts. Stress test results indicated that MIBGHS is stable under acidic and dry thermal conditions for at least 72 h but MIBG aqueous solution was decomposes slowly when exposed to UV light, thermal, oxidative and alkaline environments. Thus, m-iodobenzylamine, the starting material intended for the synthesis of MIBGHS should be analyzed to ensure that it is free from m-bromobenzylamine impurity. Stored under normal condition (-18°C), MIBGHS is stable for at least 12 months. The chemically labile guanidine and amine groups in MIBGHS are the major causes of its instability, while iodide loss from the phenyl group is a minor cause. All contaminants, derivatives, and degenerates derived from the reaction activity of the guanidine or amine groups, and the weak phenyl-iodine bond of MIBG, they are non-toxic under normal medicinal dose, but may reduce the effective dose of radioiodine-labeled MIBG.