Prof. Telat Yanik
Atatürk University, Turkey.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-968656-3-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-968656-5-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/arbs/v7

This book covers key areas of biological science. The contributions by the authors include biomass productivity, cost estimation, microalgae, animal feed, biochemical conversions, polygamodioecious, andromonoecious, facultative apomixis, floral diversity, solid lipid nanoparticles, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vaginal drug delivery system, periodic acid schiff, tunica submucosa, tunica serosa, mammal oviducts, microorganisms, petiolar anatomy, plant taxonomy, taxonomic treatments, nosocomial infections, antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic therapy, gene mutation, feed supplements, antibacterial activity, biochemical characteristics, colony features, parasitism, metabolites, symbiotic relationships, phytoremediation, heavy metal stress, cytogenetics. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biological science.


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This chapter highlights the presence of the fecundity (FecB) gene among the native sheep breeds of Tamil Nadu and the Indian Garole sheep cross. The indigenous sheep breeds in Tamil Nadu were screened for the presence of the fecundity gene, FecB as part of FecB gene introgression program. A total of 864 genomic DNA samples of sheep breeds were used to screen the FecB gene mutation through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The screening results showed that a considerable percentage of FecB mutation present in both Nilagiri and Sandyno synthetic sheep breeds. The frequencies of the wild, FecB homozygote (BB), heterozygote (B+), and homozygote (B) genotypes in Nilagiri sheep were 54.71, 35.87, and 9.41 percent, respectively. In Sandyno sheep the frequency of wild,  FecB heterozygote(B+) and homozygote (BB) genotype were 88.14, 11.86 and 0.00 percent respectively. Whereas in Coimbatore, Mecheri and Tiruchy Black sheep FecB gene was absent in all samples screened and all animals showed only the uncut 140 bp band wild type (++) genotype. Further study can be developed on the introduction of homozygous FecB (BB) mutant Nilagiri and Sandyno rams into respective farmers' flocks and in farm as it would increase profitability without increasing flock size in a local breed of sheep.

Fabrication and Investigation of Luliconazole Based 2T-SLN Gel for the Amelioration of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

Salma Firdaus , Nazia Hassan , Mohd. Aamir Mirza , Tabasum Ara , Hamed A. El-Serehy, Fahad A. Al-Misned, Zeenat Iqbal

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 7, 30 December 2023, Page 10-28

This chapter primarily focuses on fabrication and investigation of luliconazole based 2T-SLN gel for the amelioration of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), is an exceedingly common mucosal infection of the lower female reproductive tract, caused mostly by the polymorphic opportunistic fungus Candida albicans. A member of the normal human microbiota, C. albicans commonly colonizes the vaginal lumen asymptomatically. Fungal resistance and infection recurrence are major problems with the existing treatment regimens for VVC, which compromises the therapeutic efficacy of antifungal medications and results in protracted treatment and low patient compliance. The core of the present research was the fabrication and investigation of 2 T- SLN (solid lipid nanoparticles) gel carrying luliconazole for the amelioration of VVC. ‘2T’ symbolizes transvaginal and thermosensitive attributes of the present formulation. The optimized SLNs yielded a particle size, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency of 62.18 nm, 0.263 and 81.5% respectively. To formulate the 2 T-gel, the final SLNs were loaded into Carbopol 971P-NF and Triethanolamine-based gel. The 2 T-SLN gel was found to be easily spreadable and homogenous with mean extrudability (15 ± 0.4 g/cm2), viscosity (696.42 ± 2.34 Pa·s) and %drug content (93.24 ± 0.73%) values. The pH of the prepared 2 T-SLN gel (4.5 ± 0.5) was in concordance with the vaginal pH (normal conditions). For in-vitro characterization of an optimized 2 T-SLN gel, the release kinetics and anticandidal activity were assessed which offers a %cumulative drug release of 62 ± 0.5% in 72 h and 37.3 ± 1.5 mm zone of inhibition in 48 h. The optimized 2 T-SLN gel was found to be stable at room temperature for two months without any visible non-uniformity, cracking, or breaking. It also exhibits a skin-friendly profile with no noticeable symptoms of erythema or oedema. In conclusion, the current research serves as a new therapeutic perspective in assessing the activity of luliconazole for vaginal drug delivery using a 2 T-SLN gel system.

Genus Garcinia shows high diversity of sexual systems as most species are dioecious in nature. Reported sexual systems of Garcinia include gynodioecious, androdioecious, monoecious and andromonoecious. Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy was reported as facultative apomictic polygamodioecious species. G. indica exhibits large diversity in floral types. As a result, systematic research of distinct floral types seen on different types of G. indica plants was done, with the goal of associating their functioning with sexual reproduction. The study carried out at Kokum Plot, BSSKVV, Dapoli. It revealed that the male plants could be categorised into four floral types - androecious, functional males, andromonoecious and hermaphrodites. The flowers on female plants exhibited large variation in number and viability of stamens/staminodes. Each category showed significant difference in phenology, floral morphology, and pollen types. In December, the percentage of staminate flowers (79.13±2.93%) in androecious trees was significantly higher than functional males (58.61±8.60%) or andromonoecious trees (56.36±2.77%) (p \(\le\) 0.01). As female plants started flowering, all male morphotypes bore significantly higher numbers of staminate flowers and carpellate flowers were significantly reduced. Pollen viability was maximum in androecious flowers at 90.11±1.10% and minimum at 64.70±2.09% in hermaphrodite trees. Earlier studies reported that the female flowers bore well-developed female gametophyte, but well-developed embryo development was not observed. Thus, the fruit formation might be apomictic. In present investigation; a globular embryo was seen in more than 60% of female and andromonoecious flowers between 8-24 hours after anthesis but further developmental stages like were not detected. G. indica shows typical Garcinia type of embryogenesis with the embryo appears as a long hypocotyl-radicle axis with vestigial cotyledons.

The present investigation was conducted to explore the histo-architectural study of both the gravid and non-gravid oviducts of garole sheep. Livestock plays an important role in the national economy of an agricultural developing country like India and they are reared for the production of milk, meat and wool, particularly in arid, semitropical or mountainous areas. No line of demarcation between lamina propria and tunica submucosa because of the absence of lamina muscularis. The present investigation was carried out with apparently healthy adult 6 gravid and 6 non-gravid oviducts of same age group of ewes procured from Govt. registered slaughter unit, West Bengal, India. Lamina epithelialis was composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia on maximum cells. The epithelial height was more in gravid oviduct. The height and branching of the longitudinal folds of tunica mucosa were more in gravid oviduct. The elastic fibers were found mainly in the wall of blood vessels and these were more in the gravid oviducts. Comparatively, the average diameter of glandular epithelium was maximum in gravid oviduct. In both the groups the apical borders of lining epithelium showed strong Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) positive reaction. There was no longitudinal muscular layer in tunica muscularis and the collagen fibers were interspersed within the circular muscles layers of both the gravid and non-gravid oviducts. A very less amount of mucopolysaccharides were present in both the tunica muscularis and tunica serosa layers. In further research, some immune cells present in the oviduct can be identified, studied comparatively and can be concluded the possible reasons of miscarriage/abortion/successful pregnancy.

Three Harendong Plants from West Java as a Model for Phytoremediation

R. Yuniati , A. Salamah, P. A. Miranda , R. Oktarina , Y. Astrini , W. Handayani

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 7, 30 December 2023, Page 65-78

In Indonesia harendong are more commonly known as Melastoma, the most widely known species is M. malabathricum and M. affine D. Don. Several studies using harendong as subjects sometimes called M. malabathricum and M. affine D. Don as two different types, but in other studies referred to it as a synonym. In an effort to make harendong as phytoremediation agents, taxonomy problem becomes very important, because the physiology and metabolism of each different type of plant will be different. This research aims to study the morphological variation and cytogenetic of three harendong plant samples from some places in West Java. The study was conducted on the morphological analysis of flowers, leaves, and roots. Observations were carried out throughout the flower petals covering the direction of rotation, the structure of flower parts. Genetic analysis was performed by counting the number of chromosomes from root samples using squash with Aceto-carmine staining techniques. Based on morphological and cytogenetic study, M. malabathricum is suitable for phytoremediation agent. In order to carry out a preliminary study on the potential of this plant as a phytoremediation agent, M. malabathricum L. were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu). The plant’s ability to accumulate those heavy metals in root, stem and leaves were also determined. Fourty eight stems were divided into ten groups consist of control group, treatment groups which was administered with PbCl2 (25, 50, 75 \(\mu\)M), CdCl2 (20, 100, 200 \(\mu\)M), CuCl2 (10, 45, 130 \(\mu\)M). The growth of plant were observed once every three day for a month. The observation include measurement of plant height, root length, and amount of leaves which were produced. The amount of Pb, Cd, and Cu which were accumulated in plant tissue was also measured at the end of research. Based on cytogenetic analysis three harendong samples are three different species which are Melastoma malabathricum L., M. affine D. Don, dan Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don The present study also demonstrated that M. malabathricum L. showed undisturbed growth with 25, 50 and 75 \(\mu\)M PbCl2 treatment. The accumulation analysis result indicate that M. malabathricum is the Pb accumulator plant. This finding may contribute to the development of this plant for remediation of Pb-contaminated lands.

Significance of Petiolar Anatomy in Taxonomy of Acanthaceae

A. M. Patil , D. A. Patil

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 7, 30 December 2023, Page 79-89

The present paper reports observations on anatomy of petioles hitherto uninvestigated 9 species belonging to 6 genera of the family Acanthaceae. The species studied are Pachystachys lutea Nees, Peristrophe montana Nees, Pseuderanthemum malabaricum (C. B. Clarke) Gamble, P.reticulatum Radlkf, Rungia parviflora  (Retz.) Nees, Staurogyne zeylanica (Nees) O.Ktze, Stenosiphonium cordifolium (Vahl ) Alston, S.parviflorum T. Anders and S.russellianum Nees. The petioles are usually circular or broadly circular in outline and adaxially channeled. The degree of development of endomorphic features and their distribution, inclusive of cell inclusions, are described. The vasculature is generally resolved into a central prominent arc along with few or none vascular bundles. The anatomical patterns showed great variation in the epidermis, wings, pattern of vascular supply and sclerenchyma surrounding it, cell inclusions, etc., and should be considered systematically important characters in the future. A key helping identification of taxa investigated is provided based on these characters. Anatomical characters are constant and conservative and thus have potential to be used in plant taxonomy.

A Survey of Perioperative Antimicrobial Practices in Dogs and Cats in Spain

Ignacio Otero Balda , Manuel Fuertes-Recuero , Silvia Penelo Hidalgo, Jorge Espinel Rupérez , Benoit Lapostolle , Tania Ayllón-Santiago , Gustavo Ortiz-Díez

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 7, 30 December 2023, Page 90-125

This study highlights an overuse of antimicrobials in perioperative procedures in small animal surgery in Spain. The development of bacterial resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics approved for veterinary use is a serious problem for both animals and humans. Appropriate use of perioperative antimicrobials can significantly reduce the risk of post- operative infections. However, inappropriate antimicrobial use can result in the creation of multidrug- resistant bacteria, increased costs, host flora disruption, side effects and increased risk of hospital- acquired infections. This survey evaluated the current perioperative use of antimicrobials in small animals by Spanish veterinarians. A web-based questionnaire using an online platform was designed to evaluate the current perioperative use of antimicrobials in small animal surgery. Responses were represented using descriptive statistics and a statistical analysis of the association between demographic data and perioperative antimicrobial use was performed. Pre-operative antimicrobials were administered in clean surgery by up to 68.3% of participants, 81.0% in clean-contaminated surgery and 71.3% in dirty surgery, while in the post-operative period, antimicrobials were administered by up to 86.3% of participants in clean surgery, 93.2% in clean-contaminated surgery and 87.5% in dirty surgery. Factors considered “very important” for antimicrobial selection were the degree of wound contamination, patient immunosuppression and use of prosthesis. The most frequently used antimicrobial was beta-lactamase-resistant (or potentiated) penicillin. Post-operative antimicrobial use was associated with participants without specific surgical postgraduate training. The survey focused on antimicrobials commonly used in veterinary medicine and did not consider other agents used in human medicine, such as carbapenems, which are not recommended for veterinary medicine.  The study emphasizes the importance of addressing inappropriate antimicrobial use through evidence-based guidelines, increased research and enhanced educational efforts for responsible antimicrobial practices in small animal veterinary care. Evidence-based guidelines and further education regarding the correct use of antimicrobial prophylaxis are recommended.

Microalgae have been widely used in industrial applications around the world for centuries, but large-scale cultivation of algae in photobioreactor (PBR) is still facing many challenges in terms of cost of construction, system size, culture sustainability, and productivity. The production of algal feedstock is hindered by the inability to translate laboratory studies into field scaleups. This chapter focuses on the research conducted for the construction of a low-cost flat panel PBR system and optimisation of its operational strategies. The microalgal strain chosen for mass cultivation is the indigenous halophilic species, Pseudanabaena limnetica (Lemm.) Komárek, which can withstand high temperature and high light intensity in summer season and can be grown in seawater. Therefore, real seawater has been used in this research study of cost-effective biomass production. Three scales of airlift panels have been developed for the flat panel PBR system, ranging from 8L up to 250L. The dimensions of the airlift panels are as follows: 1st : 25 cm x 38 cm x 10 cm (8L), 2nd : 50 cm x 70 cm x 20 cm (60L), 3rd : 100 cm x 110 cm x 28 cm (250L). A study was conducted to optimize the air flow rate and the size of the sparger pore for adequate aeration (CO2) and agitation. Physical parameters like, Sparger velocity (v) m/s along with change in Reynolds number (Re), superficial velocity of gas (Usg), gas holdup (\(\varepsilon\)) was studied for their efficiency to support algal growth. Also, optimization of other important parameters like light intensity, inoculum size was carried out in laboratory condition and correlated with the biomass production. Each PBR was operated outdoors after optimization. Electric power consumption was also discussed along with its cost estimation and total biomass productivity as well as the operational feasibility of the PBR systems developed. After optimizing the operational strategy for the working of PBRs in lab and outdoor conditions, it was found that 60L flat panel was the most suitable for large-scale cultivation of P. limnetica. Therefore, attempts have been made to construct and assemble 1000L PBR using 60L PBR units in outdoor conditions.

Changes in Streptomyces Bacteria in Rhizospheric Soil as Compared to Non-Rhizospheric Soil: A Case Study from North-East of Qatar

Roda Fahad Al-Thani , Aisha Al-Mohannadi , Dana Deyab , Fatima Abdulla Al-Yafei , Mohammad Yousaf Ashfaq , Bassam Taha Yasseen

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 7, 30 December 2023, Page 165-198

This chapter elucidate the changes in the microbial community (especially Streptomyces bacteria) at the saline lands (rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric), and how the presence of native plants, halophytes for example, attract some new species of Streptomyces bacteria by conducting some important biochemical and biological tests. Plants are part of a rich ecosystem including numerous and diverse microorganisms in the soil. It has been long recognized that some of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria, play important roles in plant performance by improving mineral nutrition. The biological activities performed by plants and microorganisms in dry and saline soil play an important role in making them thrive in these extreme environmental conditions. Therefore, in this research, four halophyte plants namely: Caroxylon imbricatum, Sporobolus ioclados, Tamarix aphylla, and Tetraena qatarensis, were chosen to investigate the properties, characteristics, and activities of Streptomyces isolates in these habitats. The chemical and physical properties of soil at the study area (Al Ghariya Sabkha) revealed that pH levels are almost uniform and homogenous across the Sabkha; ranging between 7.7-7.9, and salinity levels were very high at non-rhizospheric soil as compared to the rhizospheric soils, thus, all elements at the rhizospheres of the studied plants have lower concentrations than those at the non-rhizospheric soils. Numerous types of isolates with unique colony characteristics and peculiarities were found in the rhizospheric soil of halophytes. These findings suggest that a considerable number of strains of Streptomyces bacteria have flourished in these miniature habitats within the canopy of these plants. The current study revealed a limited number of species of this genus in the non-rhizospheric soils, only four isolates at this mini-habitat of the halophytes under investigation were recognized, these isolates showed limited characteristics of colony features which included: aerial mycelium color, soluble pigment, reverse color, and the form of the whole colony. The enzyme activities of the isolates that have been studied in the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils have shown more variable isolates in the rhizosphere of the plants under investigation than those of non-rhizospheric soils. The majority of the Streptomyces isolates at these mini-habitats shown a strong antibacterial effect against the strains that were examined, including Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis) and Gram-negative (E. coli). Overall, the results of this research showed that the properties and characteristics of Streptomyces bacteria explaining their biodiversity were high in rhizospheric soils of halophytes as compared to non-rhizospheric soils.