Prof. Matheus Ramalho de Lima
Federal University of Semi-Arid Region, Brazil.

ISBN 978-81-19491-34-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19491-35-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/arbs/v1

This book covers key areas of Biological Science. The contributions by the authors include phytohormone, seed pre-treatment, seedling, stem cutting, anthropogenic activities, geographical origin, ecological distribution, ethno–botanical uses, peptide, spike protein, green algae, fungus, habitat, air pollution, ubiquitous distribution, ecosystem, terrestrial environment, living organism, coral reef, coastal ecosystem, phytoplankton, cystic parasitosis, darwin’s theories, exotic species, pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum cytology, fruit nutrient composition, frugivorous primates, plant kingdom, animal ingestion, biochemically intricate, biodiversity, natural selection, hydatid cysts, zoonotic parasitic and evolution. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of Biological Science.

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Techniques for the Propagation of Ternstroemia cameroonensis Cheek: A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in in the Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon

Grace Mendi Anjah , Francoline Jong Nkemnkemg , Walter Ndam Tacham , Christiana Ngyeti Nyikob Mbogue

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 1, 2 August 2023, Page 1-41

This study was carried out to investigate the regeneration potential of Ternstroemia cameroonensis a critically endangered medicinal plant in the Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon by seeds, stem cuttings and marcotting. An effort in plant propagation is very relevant in the present day forest management and routine practice to produce viable seedlings for the forest regeneration and conservation. There is dearth need of information regarding the propagation of T. cameroonensis. Air dried seeds were subjected to abrasion with sand paper, soaked in hot water at 100 0C and 98% concentrated sulphuric acid at various duration. In addition, stem cuttings and marcotts were rooted using synthetic hormones indole acetic acid and indole butyric acid as well as alternative sources (coconut water and honey). Seeds pre-treated with 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 1 minute (T21), 3 minutes (T22) had the shortest latent period of 43.6 and 41.25 days respectively. There was a significant difference in the germination percentage, with seed soaked in 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 3 minutes (T22) having the highest germination percentage (20%) followed by those soaked in 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 6 minutes (T23) with 12.22%. Early growth performances of seedlings were not significant. All seeds subjected to abrasion with sand paper and those soaked in hot water at various durations failed to germinate.

The best survival percentage of stem cuttings was in coconut water (28.7%) followed by IBA (22.75%). Stem cuttings with 50% leaf area had the best survival percentage (34.9%) compared to others. Low concentrations of IBA (0.5 g/l and 0.2g/l) and soaking in CW for 4 h had the best performance. Marcotts had an overall survival percentage of 35.41%. Those established at the middle of the crown had the highest survival percentage (15.27%) followed by those at the lower position (11.80 %). Also marcotts established on branches with larger diameter (4-6 cm) and shorter length (50 cm) had the highest survival percentage (20.13 and 19.44 respectively). Again marcotts treated with IBA and CW had the best performance compared to other pre-treatments. According to the result, T. cameroonensis can be amenable by seed and vegetative though not sustainable.

Unique Peptide Patterns in SARS-CoV-2 Virus Proteins Provide Insights into Variants’ Ability to Evade Immune Response and Infect Humans

Evangelos Kontopodis , Vasileios Pierros , Dimitrios J. Stravopodis , George Th. Tsangaris

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 1, 2 August 2023, Page 42-74

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a need to identify particular regions within the viral proteome that can serve as antigenic sites and ptomising targets for treatment. In this study, we employed a novel approach to shed light on the interactions between the virus and the host organism. We focused on analyzing the Unique Peptides (UPs) of the virus, specifically those with a minimum amino acid sequence length named as Core Unique Peptides (CrUPs), not in relation to the virus itself, but in comparison to the entire proteome of the host organism. Through this approach, we successfully identified CrUPs unique to the virus, which were not found in the host organism's proteome. We specifically examined the SARS-CoV-2 proteome to identify CrUPs that interact with the human proteome, referred to as C/H-CrUPs. Our findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 contains 7,503 C/H-CrUPs, with the protein SPIKE_SARS2 exhibiting the highest density of these peptides. Extensive analysis revealed that the critical P681R mutation generates new C/H-CrUPs in the vicinity of the R685 cleavage site, while the L452R mutation diminishes the antigenicity of the NF9 peptide and enhances the virus's binding affinity to its ACE2 receptor protein. The simultaneous presence of these mutations in concerning variants like Delta enables the virus to evade the immune response, facilitates its entry into host cells on a larger scale, significantly increases virus production, and results in its widespread release, thereby elevating its infectivity in human target cells.The Core Unique Peptides (CrUPs) approach utilized in this study has the potential to be applied to any virus or pathogen targeting any host organism, yielding valuable insights into their immune response and infectiveness.

Corticolous Lichen Diversity on Trees in Urban and Suburban Settings in New Amsterdam, Berbice, Guyana

Bebe Raazia Bacchus , Phillip N. B. Da Silva

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 1, 2 August 2023, Page 75-90

Given the dearth of information on corticolous lichens in urban and suburban locations in Guyana, this study was conducted to identify, document and compare corticolous lichen diversity on the barks of trees in urban and suburban environments in New Amsterdam, Guyana. Within each of four study sites a 50m by 20m plot was delineated and healthy mature trees were sampled for the presence of corticolous lichens. Forty-one healthy trees from five species were studied using (10cm by 50cm) ladder quadrats on the tree trunk (N, S, E, W) at 150cm height. This study recorded 14978 individual lichens belonging to 10 families, 13 genera and 18 species. Species richness, evenness and diversity of corticolous lichens communities were determined and Shannon Diversity Index, Simpson’s Diversity Index, Pielou’s Index, Menhinick’s Index and Whittaker’s diversity index were used as the basis for comparing lichen diversity. The results revealed that the urban sites studied were more diverse and had a higher species richness and species evenness than the suburban sites. The overall diversity (0.8902) of New Amsterdam was indicative of a very diverse lichen community. Pairwise comparison of Whittaker’s beta diversity index for all four sites was 0.5. Menhinick’s Index for richness for New Amsterdam was 0.1471. Cladonia parasitica, Hypotrachyna laevigata and Usnea cornuta were restricted to Swietenia mahagoni trunks and Dirinaria applanate was restricted to Cocos nucifera. Corticolous lichen diversity appeared to have been influenced by the diversity of host trees since the species richness of corticolous lichens decreased as host tree specificity decreased.

The Condition of Megabenthos in the Coral Reef Ecosystem on Salawati-Batanta Island, West Papua

Hendrik A. W. Cappenberg , U. Y. Arbi , J. Souhoka , N. W. P. Sari , E. Widyastuti , Susetiono, F. D. Hukom , T. Sidabutar

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 1, 2 August 2023, Page 91-121

This study investigates the status of the megabenthos population in the coral reef ecosystem of Salawati-Batanta Island in West Papua. Salawati-Batanta Island is known for its extensive coral reefs and rich variety of megabenthos, including polychaetes, crustaceans, echinoderms and mollusks. The study examines the abundance, diversity, and distribution of megabenthos species in this region. Data on megabenthos was collected from transects conducted along the coast at depths of 3 to 7 meters. Observations were conducted between 2015 and 2019, with additional data collected in 2021 to ensure a comprehensive analysis. The results consistently showed a stable diversity of eight megabenthos species, which could be classified into different ecological groups based on their importance. These groups include indicator species, coralivorous species, and economically valuable species. It has been found that the distribution of certain species, such as L. laevigata and Tridacna spp. is widespread throughout the study area, indicating a healthy population. Species like Panulirus sp. and A. planci showed a more restricted distribution. The study also found that coral-eating groups were low in number and posed no significant threat to the coral colonies. The density of L. laevigata and Tridacna spp. remained relatively stable throughout the observation period, while Holothuria spp. showed a declining trend, particularly in commercially valuable species, suggesting possible overexploitation. Overall, the study suggests that the megabenthos community in the coral reef ecosystem of Salawati-Batanta Island is currently in good condition. However, it emphasizes the importance of implementing effective conservation measures to ensure the long-term sustainability of these coral reefs and prevent over-exploitation of economically valuable species.

Speciation: An Analysis of Diversity in Australia in Context of Darwin’s Theories of Evolution

Shivangi Barik , K. B. Arun , Majesh Tomson

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 1, 2 August 2023, Page 122-129

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the elements that Charles Darwin discussed in his book On the Origin of Species in relation to the distinctive flora and fauna present on the Australian continent. Natural selection is the process through which populations of living organisms adapt and change. Individuals in a population are naturally variable, meaning that they are all different in some ways. It is admirable and has a strong scientific foundation how natural selection is used to support the successful development of new offspring. The various principles analysed in this study are artificially introduced species, speciation in isolation, the impact of various geographical factors on speciation and its rate, and the effect of volatile periods in the planet’s history, such as glaciation. Furthermore, specific speciation in island ecosystems has played an important role in the diversification of organisms in Australia.

Study about Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Sputum Cytology

Rajat Kumar , Khushbu Kumari , K. D. Kulkarni , S. S. Hiremath , M. H. Prabhu

Advanced Research in Biological Science Vol. 1, 2 August 2023, Page 130-137

This chapter evaluate the diagnostic utility of Pap stain, Auramine-O and ZN stain in rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in sputum cytology. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) is most common communicable disease in low socioeconomic population. It is most common in developing countries like India.

Study was done on Sputum of clinically suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis from June 2017 to August 2017. On all received sample Z N, Pap, Auramine-O staining done.

Among clinically suspected 150 patients. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 74 patients. Pap shows 49 (66.21%), Auramine-O shows 42(56.75%); ZN shows 35 (47.29%) cases positive. Tuberculosis commonly affects lungs but can also be extra-pulmonary. Hence microscopic examination of sputum for detection of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) is of utmost importance. Early detection can prevent further complication.

The method used in the present study enables in rapid identification of these infective sources and hence prevent further transmission and is thus important in TB control.

The primary indicators that a person may have tuberculosis include an evening increase in temperature, weight loss, a cough lasting longer than two weeks, and CXR results. In the case of patients who are seropositive, males are more affected than females. When using fluorescent microscopy to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis, Pap is marginally more sensitive than Auramine-O.

Chimpanzees are frugivorous primates that eat fruit in large quantities compared to other foods. To find suitable fruit, they must navigate through the available fruit resource that constitute varying concentrations of nutrients, toxins, and digestion inhibitors. In this study, two year all-day follows coupled with faecal analysis were done to record the fruits eaten by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Kalinzu Forest Reserve. A total number of fifteen (15) fresh fruits were collected and analysed for their macronutrient and antifeedant content to determine whether nutrient composition had an influence on chimpanzees' pattern of frugivory. Fruit nutrient content was determined by analyzing freeze dried fresh samples using standard techniques. Musanga leo-errerae (76.14%) and Ficus spp (66.05 %) constituted the most commonly eaten fruits while other eaten fruits constituted the remaining 18.68% (N = 2683). With the exception of Musanga leo-errerae, Uvariopsis congoensis, and Aframomum angustifolium, fruit consumption generally increased for fruits with total phenols and tannins less than 1% per gramm. Only calcium, tannins, crude fat, protein, and energy content significantly predicted 76.86% of consumption, according to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 76.86%; P = 0.019). However, the fact that some of the most eaten fruits like Aframomum angustifolium and Musanga leo-errerae were recorded to have the highest amounts in tannins shows that chimpanzees have other behavioural feeding strategies they use to deal with such antifeedants. According to this study, Musanga leo errerae alone provided 10253 mg per kilogram of calcium consumed per day. Therefore, Chimpanzees in Kalinzu forest have adequate calcium intake and its nutritional benefits like healthy strong bones and teeth. Other than fruit availability, consideration of effect of fruit size and handling within the existing models of chimpanzees’ diet could hence enhance further the understanding of other fruits consumed by chimpanzees.

This chapter aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and viability of cystic hydatidosis in bovine slaughtered in four selected abattoirs within Kaduna metropolis. Hydatidosis is cystic parasitosis caused by a larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus with immense economic and public health significance. As to many other parasitic infections, the life cycle of Echinococcus infection is complex which requires two mammalian hosts (intermediate and definitive hosts) for the completion of its life cycle. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence, organ distribution and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Kaduna Metropolis abattoir. A total of 160 cattle at slaughter point, that is 40 from each abattoir were randomly sampled and examined for the presence of the hydatid cysts.
Out of the 160 cattle examined (40 from each abattoir), 21 (12.2 %) were found to harbor visible hydatid cysts. Significantly higher infection (p < 0.05) was detected in cattle with poor body conditions than animals with moderate and fat body condition score. Animals used were all adults. Cysts were found to be distributed in the lung, liver, kidney, spleen and heart as follows: 42.9%, 38.0%, 4.76%, 9.50% and 4.76% respectively. According to the study, hydatidosis is a serious condition affecting cattle in Kaduna and the surrounding areas. It may result in significant financial losses since affected animals lose weight and suffer organ damage.Out of 36 hydatid cysts examined, 17 (47.22%), 14 (38.88%) and 5 (13.88%) were found to be small, medium and large- sized respectively. Likewise, out of 36 cysts assessed, 18 (50%) were fertile, 4 (11.11%) sterile and 14 (38.8%) were calcified. Of the 18 fertile cysts subjected for viability test, 12 (27.7%) were viable while, 8(22.2%) were non-viable. Health workers should be empowered to enlighten the abattoirs operation on the claim of hydatidosis transmission. They should also increase inspection visits and monitoring of abattoirs activities to avoid illegal consumption of hydatid infected organs.Anti–helminthic drugs should be made available to the bovine farmers in order to eliminate the parasites.