Prof. Khalil Kassmi
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mohamed Premier University, Morocco.

Short Biosketch

ISBN 978-81-19761-49-4 (Print)
ISBN 978-81-19761-05-0 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/acst/v3

This book covers key areas of science and technology. The contributions by the authors include embedded system, arduino, tracking system, smart glove, global positioning system, accumulation, rockfill dam, reinforced concrete watertight diaphragm, static analysis, dynamic analysis, deformation, recommender systems, precision agriculture, nutrient management, stealth technology,  electromagnetic compatibility, radar cross-section reduction, metamaterial, perfect absorber, multi-band absorber, microwave, radar cross section,  penta-perfect metamaterial absorber, electromagnetic wave, energetic tool, pressure tool, power plants, power stations, power transmission lines, critical infrastructures, mining subsector, security risks, energy weapon, carbonaceous matter, coalification, bimetallic nanoparticles, microemulsions, intermicellar exchange, kinetics energy, nanotechnology, peroxidase-mimicking nanoparticles, cladded blocks, magnetic non-destructive evaluation, magnetic adaptive testing, magnetic hysteresis measurements, cavitation erosion, shock-induced nanobubble, molecular dynamics simulations, molecular dynamics. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.


Media Promotion:


An Invention of Smart Glove to Help the Elderly Patients

J. Sofia Bobby , J. Jane Elona , J. H. Bismi , M. Dinesh Kumar

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 1-14

Aging is characterized as the progressive decline of physiological capabilities required for life and reproduction over time. Everyone in the world should take care of old patients and treat them the way they should be handled. Most older people are encountering health problems as they age and are being placed in homes and orphanages. Elders are unable to visit doctors on a regular basis to assess their health state. This article proposes a remedy for the elderly patients in the area by aiding them and encouraging them to be unafraid. The suggested system takes use of many characteristics such as GPS and GSM modules, a pulse oximeter, an accelerometer, a touch sensor, and Bluetooth that communicate with the Arduino. The suggested smart glove is used to assess temperature, detect falls, and monitor pulse rate in elderly individuals who are experiencing health problems. In this context, for client health care, the proposed system is based on supported mobile health technology and employs a smart glove to authorize caregivers or physicians to line up as well as examine the history of the patient's physiological data during his or her absence from the clinical center or home. These statistics will assist them in caring for older patients during challenging times for their survival. Furthermore, this smart glove is quite important for women's protection in order to keep them protected from harm.

This study presents the stress-strain state in the dam body depending on the type of rockfill that was performed according to the moment of completion of the dam and the first filling with water. Large dams are a very relevant instance for assessing seismic risk. On the one hand, the dams themselves are valuable, with ramifications for the entire economy via energy generation, water delivery systems for irrigation, flood protection, and so on. On the other side, dam structural deterioration can create severe disasters and expose the people to the consequences of abrupt floods. The situation in Romania is such that the future safety of existing dams should be considered. The first reason is because these dams were conceived and built on the basis of technical norms, the majority of which are no longer in effect; the second reason is the recent dramatic climate changes, which have resulted in an accumulation of water in progressively huge lakes. A third reasonable argument is the length of existing dams. The stress-deformation condition that occurs in the Rastolita dam body depending on the kind of rockfill is investigated in this research. Calculations were done for two cases, namely the completion of construction and the first filling of the dam with water. The results show that after completion of construction, the maximum settlement is recorded in the central area of the dam, below the middle third; horizontal displacements of the downstream prism are significantly higher compared to deformations of the upstream prism in the area where the used material has a higher compressibility. Maximum principal normal stress registers some local distortions within acceptable limits; minimum principal normal stress exhibits significant gradients in the first stage contact zone downstream of the dam slope with the tuff-pyroclastic embankment layer, as well as the first three layers of intercalated filling disposed near the slope. Stress increases caused by hydrostatic pressure after the initial filling do not result in stress concentrations in zones different than those recorded at construction completion.

Sensor Based Nutrient Recommender System for Solanum lycopersicum

G. Yogeswari , A. Padmapriya

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 45-65

The goal of this study is to spread information about how to use sensor data to establish a precision-based recommender system for nutrition management. Agriculture encompasses crop and livestock production, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry for food and non-food products. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.  The restoration of the nutrient is essential, in this view there is need to adopt precision agriculture system which change crop related plans and regulations, whereas nutrient management is a major domain that is needed to be spotlight in the field of farming techniques. The experimental study of this research work is conducted using a terrace garden. The nutrient management with respect to the horticulture crop tomato is considered as the main crop. The samples are divided into two groups, A and B, which represent samples with and without the use of natural fertilizers and manures, respectively. The results of the analysis of the growth parameters are shown. This paper describes the data collecting process utilizing sensors and an Arduino kit. During the period of growth, the effects of pests and any remedies used are documented. For the purpose of creating suggestions for nutrient management systems, the expert advice provided in the soil test results is taken into account.

Design and Simulation of an Electromagnetic Penta-Perfect Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Application

Raed Ashraf Kamil Albadri , Khalid Saeed Lateef Al-Badri

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 66-77

Utilizing a multiband metamaterial absorber has diverse applications across various fields due to its unique electromagnetic properties. Some key applications include: Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Reduction, Stealth Technology, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Antenna Design, Medical Imaging, Energy Harvesting, Aerospace Engineering, Material Testing. This chapter presents a straightforward simulation of a multi-band metamaterial absorber intended for microwave frequencies. The proposed unit cell is composed of two copper rings placed at different radii on an FR4 substrate with a thickness of 2.5 mm, enabling the creation of multiple absorption bands. While the conventional asymmetrical ring structure often responds to electromagnetic (EM) wave polarization, the innovative Penta-Perfect Metamaterial Absorber (PPMMA) structure introduced in this study showcases the capacity to effectively absorb EM waves across a broad range of incident angles. According to CST simulation outcomes, the PPMMA structure exhibits five distinct absorption bands, achieving complete metamaterial absorption for normally incident electromagnetic waves at frequencies of 12.25 GHz (absorbance of 91.3%), 12.9 GHz (absorbance of 99.3%), 16.15 GHz (absorbance of 93.7%), 16.78 GHz (absorbance of 98.2%), and 18.44 GHz (absorbance of 97.4%).

Using the Strategic Energetic Resources or Electrical Energy as a Possible Pressure Tool

Daniel Nicolae Fita , Mila Ilieva Obretenova , Sorina Daniela Stanila , Adriana Zamora, Safta Gheorghe Eugen , Florin Grecu-Muresan

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 78-87

Electrical energy is the energy derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy of the charged particles. In general, it is referred to as the energy that has been converted from electric potential energy. We can define electrical energy as the energy generated by the movement of electrons from one point to another. The movement of charged particles along/through a medium (say wire) constitute current or electricity. The world's major energy powers desire to own and control the entire chain of global energy in order to use primary energetic resources or electricity as a possible energetic tool or pressure tool in the context of blackmail and profitabilty due to the increasing frequency of cases of energetic collapse around the world manifested by the lack of finite primary energetic resources (oil, gas, coal, and uranium) or electricity to the final consumers.

By the lack of supplying the primary energy or electricity to final consumers leads to the crises that cause societal disproportions causing extreme damage to the safety of citizens, industry, the national economy and thus national security, because all areas of a state economy depend on primary energetic resources or electricity. In this context, the energy security of a state becomes an important pillar of national, regional and international security, bringing safety, stability and well-being to the final consumers for electricity usage.

Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Within the National Mining Subsector

Daniel Nicolae Fita , Mila Ilieva Obretenova , Sorina Daniela Stanila , Adriana Zamora , Safta Gheorghe Eugen , Florin Grecu-Muresan

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 88-99

Mining industry is one of the most important industrial sectors for different countries, especially those that are drastically dependent on their available mining resources. Mining industry refers to the cluster of clusters of industries related to the mining related activities, that is, extraction, refining, and so on. Unlike many other large industrial setting, this industrial sector is comparatively small, but it involves the generation of very hazardous materials as by-products and as waste materials. The necessity to evaluate security threats on the national mining subsector, which produces and possesses vital mining infrastructures, arises in the context of the potential occurrence of energy blackout situations, which raises significant questions of national interest and has ramifications for Europe and NATO. Critical mining infrastructures must be extensively analyzed in terms of ensuring and increasing energy and national security in order to avert possible national crises since they may be exposed to internal and/or foreign attacks. The shortage of coal or the power generated by it may severely harm industry, the economy, and state structures, which are virtually exclusively dependent on electricity, according to the authors, who feel that addressing the national mining subsector is a purely national security problem.

Using Coal as a Pressure Instrument

Daniel Nicolae Fita , Mila Ilieva Obretenova , Sorina Daniela Stanila , Adriana Zamora , Safta Gheorghe Eugen , Florin Grecu-Muresan

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 100-112

Coal is a solid carbon-rich substance that is generally brown or black and occurs in layered sedimentary strata. It is one of the most significant major fossil fuels. Coal continues to be an important source of energy that can maintain its role as a safe fuel, for many countries it is the only fuel available to meet the growing electricity demand needed to raise living standards and standards of living. The development of energy energy around the globe, as characterized by the scarcity of finite main energy resources (oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium) and/or electrical power to final consumers, as well as the desire of the world's major energy powers to own and control the entire global energy chain for the purpose of using primary energy resources or electricity as a possible energy weapon or pressure instrument in the context of blackmail and profitability, makes this paper extremely important. Lack of supply of primary energy resources or electricity to final consumers causes societal crises with possible military escalation and can cause States of societal imbalance, causing extreme damage to citizen safety, industry, national economy, and, implicitly, national security. In this setting, a state's energy security becomes a crucial pillar of national, regional, and global security, giving consumers safety, stability, and well-being but also being a source of civil and/or armed conflict. The use of coal, which is a strategic primary energy resource as a possible energy weapon or instrument of pressure, is closely linked to the exercise of energy and economic power, an important component in a state’s power complex. The lack of energy infrastructures of some less developed energy and economic States has led to increased games on their side and allowed some "energy monopolies" in terms of control of re(sources) and energy lines of markets and prices for primary energy resources.  In this context, energy security is no longer just some economic policy objective, but has become a solid and constant concern for the global energy Community.

Kinetics and Surface Composition of Au/Pt Nanoparticles Synthesized in Microemulsion Template Using a Prediction Model

Jorge Perez-Alvarez , Concha Tojo , David Buceta , M. Arturo Lopez-Quintela

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 113-138

The objective of this study is producing tailor-made Au/Pt nanoparticles. The presence of Au on the surface of Au/Pt nanocatalysts has been shown to improve the Pt catalytic activity. That is why the ability to exert control over surface composition is key to improve catalysts efficiency of bimetallic nanoparticles. A computer simulation study was carried out in order to comprehend how the resulting surface can be modified by the simple strategy of varying Au:Pt ratio. We present an in-depth kinetic simulation study on the influence of Au:Pt ratio on the formation of Au/Pt nanoparticles synthetized in microemulsions. The resulting nanostructures and surface compositions are explained as a function of kinetic parameters such as Au:Pt ratio, concentration and intermicellar exchange rate. It should be stressed that the compartmentalization of the reaction medium play a fundamental role in the synthesis because micelles act as dosing pump of the faster precursor metal (Au). It allows us to explain that a higher Au precursor amount in feeding solution results in a Au reduction which takes place over a longer period of time. As a result, Au is deposited until longer stages of the synthesis, so that Au is present at nanoparticle surface. Micelles as reaction media produces a minor impact on Pt due to its slower reduction. By adjusting the Au:Pt ratio, it is possible to create surfaces with specific compositions based on the distinct kinetic behaviors of Au and Pt. The conclusions on the degree of atomic mixing under varied Au:Pt ratios are further supported by numerical results on surface composition, which correctly mirror experimental data.

Non-destructive inspection of neutron irradiation generated embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steel is an extremely important task in nuclear industry. The aim of the present study is to suggest and to test experimentally a novel magnetic method, called magnetic adaptive testing (MAT). The influence of neutron irradiation degradation on reactor pressure vessel steel was investigated. Large blocks were irradiated by neutrons at a low irradiation temperature. Samples were measured by MAT method before and after the neutron irradiation. It was shown that the modification of the recorded magnetic parameters due to the neutron irradiation was well detectable by this non-destructive method. It was also shown that the influence of neutron irradiation could be detected with a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio even through the cladding. In both cases (on the cladded side and from the bottom base material) a good, close to linear correlation was found between magnetic parameters and destructively determined ductile to brittle transition temperature. It was also demonstrated, how the base material and the cladding itself can be inspected separately from each other by this non-destructive magnetic measurements. It was found that with the proper choice of the magnetizing yoke dimension, these two different materials could be measured independently of each other. Our results can help for the future practical application of magnetic methods in the regular inspection of nuclear power plants.

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanobubble Collapse Near Different Boundaries

Ebrahim Kadivar , Ali Rajabpour , Ould el Moctar

Advances and Challenges in Science and Technology Vol. 3, 28 September 2023, Page 167-188

In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the dynamics of a single nanobubble caused by a shock wave collapsing close to two hard and one flexible boundaries. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for analyzing the physical movements of atoms and molecules. The atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a fixed period of time, giving a view of the dynamic "evolution" of the system. Polyethylene served as the flexible barrier, while aluminum and iron were used to create the stiff limits. A method called the momentum mirror was used to create the shock waves that hit the nanobubble inside a molecular system. The dynamics of a single nanobubble caused by shock and its collapse at flexible and stiff barriers were investigated in this work for two different distances from the walls. The boundaries' collapse-induced damage as well as the atomic velocity contours surrounding the single nanobubble were studied. The collapse-induced damage on the boundaries was obtained from ten collapsing nanobubbles. Results showed that the relative wall distance affected the single nanobubble's collapse dynamics near the boundaries. A generated nanojet was directed on the surfaces during the collapse process for all cases. In addition, the induced damages in the depth of the polyethylene surface, iron surface, and aluminum surface for the relative wall distance of \(\gamma\) = 1.3 were obtained as 6.0, 0.47, and 0.63 nm, respectively. It was observed that the depth of the collapse-induced damage for the nanobubble collapsing near the iron boundary was lower than the collapse-induced damage for the aluminum boundary. However, the erosion depth formed on the polyethylene boundary was much greater than the erosion depth of the two rigid boundaries. Furthermore, the damage width formed on the surfaces of polyethylene and aluminum was 12.0 nm and 7.0 nm, respectively. This shows that the erosion width for polyethylene was also much greater than the erosion width for aluminum. Finally, the damages formed on the boundaries for the relative wall distance of \(\gamma\) = 1.3 were more than the damages on the boundaries at relative wall distance of \(\gamma\) = 1.8.