Dr. Guang Yih Sheu
Associate Professor, Chang-Jung Christian University, Taiwan.

ISBN 978-93-90888-72-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-73-3 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/aaer/v8

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include  mathematical study, axisymmetric flow, Navier-Stokes fluid, solar collector, contact angle, super hydrophobic surface, freezing temperature, power system stabilizers, flexible AC transmission system, low frequency oscillation, welding, gas turbine engines, electron beam, hydraulic cylinders, nozzle block, health and safety, occupational hazards, safety regulations, deflection function, thin plate, , finite element analysis, stone architectures, conservation, restoration, energetic efficiency, drowsiness detection, power window, raspberry-Pi, static testing, composite wing, system matrix, Krylov subspace, model reduction method, rational canonical form, infrared non-destructive testing, glass fiber reinforced plastic, barker code, pulse compression, fourier transform, interband optical transitions, Gd2O3 nanoparticles, electron transitions, two stroke engine, SI engine, scavenging, intake valves and exhaust valve, conversion,  sigma metrics, articulated robot, end effector, forward kinematics, free body diagram, inverse kinematics, planar robot.This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


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The physics-mathematical modeling of the different processes involved in this technical device has been the subject of intense studies by the specialized scientific community for several decades. We are interested in the mathematical study of a system of stationary Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy equation in a bounded domain in   . The proposed system could simulate the flow of a fluid in a solar collector. Under certain conditions of the problem's parameters, we show that the weak solution of the variational problem exists and is unique in an appropriate weighted Sobolev space.

The anti-icing properties of coatings based on the developed composition areconsidered. It was shown, that after wetting during 72 hours, the coatings based on the proposed composition retained a superhydrophobic effect. The wetting angle on the mortar substrate was more than 150 degrees. Adhesion of coatings to the substrate after wetting amounted to 1 point. Information is given about the results of evaluation of the adhesion of ice to a superhydrophobic metal surface. It is shown, that the force of detachment of a drop of water on a superhydrophobic metal surface is 3 times less. It ensures easier rolling of a drop of water from the surface and its anti-icing properties. It is established, that the adhesion of ice to the superhydrophobic surface is less compared to the hydrophilic one. It is shown, that there is no difference in the rate of ice evaporation on a hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surface. The research indicate that the proposed composition forms a coating characterized by anti-icing properties that remain in service.

Due to power system oscillations induced by complex interconnections, power system stability has been a major concern and will continue to be a major concern in power system operations.

For improving power system stability, efforts have been directed toward damping power system oscillations. The small signal stability is the instability that has been influenced by complex interconnections. Small signal stability can be dampened with power system stabilisers (PSS). PSS, on the other hand, have certain disadvantages, such as significant variations in voltage profiles and the potential for leading power factor operations, which may reduce system stability in the face of severe disturbances. In wide multi machine power systems, using only traditional PSS can not be enough to dampen inter-area oscillations and the effect of voltage profile variation. Power electronic devices known as Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices, on the other hand, are good at damping inter-area oscillations and can handle voltage variations. As a result, based on computational intelligence techniques, this paper provides a thorough analysis and evaluation of PSS and FACTS power oscillation damping (POD) controllers in reducing low frequency oscillations. The importance of technical paper publications on PSS and FACTS-based controller design, optimum location, and parameter tuning is highlighted. Finally, the potential future research directions for novel PSS and FACTS devices is proposed as a reference for interested researchers.

Repair & Welding of Elements and Construction Units of Gas Turbine Engines by Means of Electron Beam

V. M. Nesterenkov, Yu V. Orsa, K. S. Khripko

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 41-52

Renewal of gas turbine engines (GTE) is very urgent and at the same time highly complicated technical task. A cost effective alternative to new replacement parts is the restoration of the damaged or worn construction units and elements of GTE, including compressor and fan blades, as well as guide cases and hydraulic cylinders of nozzle block. The work contains the results of the development of reliable and efficient methods of gas turbine parts renewal by means electron beam welding. The technology of repair of three types of blade airfoil defects, replacement of damaged guide vanes and restoration of worn hydraulic cylinders was mastered. It is confirmed that electron beam welding is ideal for the solution of aircraft GTE construction units repair problems.

Accidents on construction sites in Nigeria have caused and still cause devastating effects on properties and the lives of workers, as well as affecting the delivery of projects on time and within budget. However, little has been done to address this critical issue. Several hundreds of construction workers are killed each year on Nigerian construction sites, with many more rendered temporarily or permanently disabled.  A study was thus carried out on the perceptions of professionals on the current health and safety (H&S) practices on Nigerian construction sites. A quantitative method was used where a survey questionnaire was administered to potential respondents. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were administered and 100 responses were ultimately collected, representing a response rate of 66.6%. The data were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics to reveal that poor H&S practices are evident on Nigerian construction sites, particularly: the lack of commitment to safety by stakeholders, lack of governmental support, little or no diligence while enforcing safety regulations on site and lack of safety education programmes on site. Also, accidents can be attributed to many sources, chiefly non-compliance with safety regulations, carelessness of workers, weak coordination of workers on site and ineffective safety culture. The safety performance of many projects in Nigeria is still below par. As the causes of accidents in Nigerian construction are many, likewise efforts by many stakeholders are needed to address the issue. Government, professional bodies and contractors can play leading roles in bringing improvements.

Deflection Function Formulation for Simply Supported thin Plate Using Variational Approach

Kefiyalew Zerfu, Januarti Jaya Ekaputri

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 64-73

This paper presents more convenient deflection function that properly substitutes slow converging series function by Naiver for simply supported quadrilateral thin plate. The formulation of the deflection function was conducted by using variational approach. During formulation, Rayleigh-Ritz procedures was used and coordinate function that satisfies kinematic boundary condition and the minimum potential energy principle was developed.  In addition to coordinate function, modification factor was applied to the main function for curve fitting purpose. To validate the current study, comparisons were done with Navier’s solution and finite element analysis. The results shown that the deviation for mid-point deflection of current study was very small, i.e. around 0.03%, from Navier’s solution. Furthermore, it has been investigated that finite element analysis also resulted closer result with current study. This study will minimize the computation time by eliminating long and slowly converging series coordinate function in Navier’s solution.

Seismic hazard analysis is generally carried out for a place at active seismicity region. Such analysis is rarely performed for low-to-moderate region as in East Malaysia. The seismic hazard analysis requires estimation of ground motion intensity where the process needs to use a compatible ground motion prediction equation or GMPE. The analysis provides a peak ground acceleration (PGA) estimates in a function of earthquake magnitude and distance. In this study, the characteristics of low-to-moderate databases were used and derived by regression analysis in terms of horizontal PGA. The appropriate GMPE design for East Malaysia is based on ground motions recorded compiled from shallow to deep strike slip earthquakes. Furthermore, earthquake data is based on actual data recorded at a broad range of magnitude levels within a wide range of distances. The new equation is used to predict the PGA value throughout East Malaysia by probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). PSHA is a method to analyse seismic hazard assessment using probability concept by considering the uncertainties of the size, location and rate of occurrence of earthquake and the variation of ground motion characteristics. With collection of more earthquake databases, GMPE have become more reliable. The GMPE of peak ground acceleration for low-to-moderate earthquake at long distance was found to be logarithmically distributed. The equation provides ease in both implementation and interpretation of physical parameters with comparable standard deviation.

Historic Centers Restoration and Ancient Buildings Energetic Efficiency Improvement

Nicola Santopuoli, Ilaria Pecoraro

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 82-90

The historical center is a part of the city with specific environmental, architectural and historical values, which emerges from the urban fabric structural continuity. This complex reality requires a comprehensive understanding to determinate the most proper ways to carry out functional transformations and system adaptations, with respect to historical buildings values. Each building must obtain those proper improvements and functional adjustments, also in terms of technology and energetic efficiency. The achievements of a complex interdisciplinary research project on Ceglie Messapica historical center (BR, Italy) are explained. They lead to guidelines for mulation for the historical buildings’ critical conservative restoration.

Safety Systems in Car Using Raspberry-Pi

S. Sharmila Devi

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 91-100

Automotive accidents lead to not only mortality of people but also cause financial cost to both people and society. This special issue is focused on reviewing history and background of automotive system by presenting recent developments. This paper aims at giving an overview of implementing safety and security system in car for today and future development. The key enabling technology for active safety system includes drowsiness detection and Anti pinch window’s effect. Other proposed concepts to be implemented are seat belt detection and alcohol detection. Driver’s drowsiness is monitored using technique called image processing and it is processed through MATLAB but the main constraint in this technique is that processing speed on hardware. The idea proposed in this paper is that Open CV library is used for real time facial images analysis to warn the drowsiness of driver in order to prevent traffic accidents. Anti-pinch window system helps to avoid injuries because of power window. Seat belt alert system gives an audio output to wear seat belts for safety. Finally alcohol detection detects a drunken driver and it will send a message to the nearby police station along with the details of the vehicle and its position. The proposed system does all the above features with the help of a Raspberry-Pi , camera and few sensors in its hard ware part along with coding computations through python which has the advantage of continuous monitoring at minimal cost thereby preventing accidental injuries to a great extent. The proposed system is a demo version of car safety system using open CV software and other hardware. This detection is based on the high pixel camera therefore it will have more accuracy.

Study on Static Testing for Composite Wing of a Two-seater Seaplane

Sinchai Chinvorarat, Boonchai Watjatrakulq, Pongsak Nimdum, Teerawat Sangpet, Tosaporn Soontornpasatch, Pumyos Vallikul

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 101-111

The paper studied the strength and deformation characteristics of a composite wing of a two-seater seaplane to get the certificate of airworthiness, which static testing is indispensable. The primary wing structure component includes upper and lower skins, leading edge, trailing edge, a root rib, and main spar. The main purpose of static testing is to examine the bending strength of the wing. The deformation of the wing and measured strain data were collected by a computer.  The testing results show good agreement with the FE analysis results, and the bending strength of the wing is strong enough to support the limit loads (the maximum loads to the expected in-service) without detrimental and permanent deformation and without failure for at least 3s under the ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety), which meets the requirement of ASTM F2245-16c (Standard Specification for Design and Performance of a Light Sport Airplane).

For single input and single output time-invariant linear system, a new projection method to obtain reduced models is presented by making use of the rational canonical form of system matrix and the Krylov subspace. At first, the system matrix is transformed to its rational canonical form by use of linear transformation. And then both projection method and Krylov subspace method are used to reduce model. The advantage of this method is the poles of the reduced system are same as those of the original. Thus the reduced system remains the stability when the original system is. This method is more effective than simple Krylov subspace method. Simulation results are show to verify the validity and feasibility of the methods. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Recent Study on Barker Coded Modulated Thermal Wave Imaging for Defect Detection of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Md. M. Pasha, B. Suresh, K. Rajesh Babu, Sk. Subhani, G. V. Subbarao

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 119-128

Depending on the thermal inhomogeneity of the constituent material, infrared active thermography provides subsurface specifics of the test item. Novel processing approaches to enhance detectability and excitations enabling depth analysis with constituent band of frequencies are needed for effective analysis of various defects occurring at different depths in realistic objects. This contribution aims to demonstrate the depth analysis offered by phase modulated coded stimulation for infrared imaging, which has been validated using a glass fibre reinforced plastic plate with embedded Teflon inserts.  The Experiments showed that using cumulative energy in pulse compression instead of distributed energy in the current phase analysis improved defect detection. In addition to defect shape preservation, it was discovered that correlation-based processing minimised non-uniform radiation/emissivity.

Research on Interband Optical Transitions in Gd2O3: Er Nanoparticles – Prospective System for Energy Convertors

A. F. Zatsepin, Yu A. Kuznetsova, M. A. Mashkovtsev, V. N. Rychkov

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 129-136

The features of electron transitions in the region of fundamental absorption edge as well as vibrational characteristics are investigated in Gd2O3 nanoparticles doped with Er3+ ions at 0.25-8 mol% concentration. The analysis of initial reflection data is performed for cases of direct and indirect interband transitions. The dependences of corresponding energy gaps on activator concentration are obtained. The effect of strong decrease in the phonon frequency under doping of matrix with a small amount of Er3+ is found. The obtained data open new opportunities for improving the efficiency of energy conversion devices. The obtained data indicate the possibility of thermal losses minimization during the radiation conversion.

This work is aimed to attempt to reduce scavenging problems by developing a new model of two-stroke spark-ignition engine.

This model allows fresh air to pass through intake valves at the bottom of the cylinder and burned gases to exit through exhaust ports at the top of the cylinder.

The piston closes the exhaust ports as it pushes towards the bottom of the cylinder, and then the fuel is pumped.

As a result, the probability of fuel outgoing exhaust gases mixing is minimised. The exhaust ports unravel during piston expansion, and the burnt gases escape to the atmosphere due to pressure differences and high temperatures.

The exhaust gases automatically accelerated in the opposite direction of gravity, minimising the chance of mixed incoming fresh air. The engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple valve train system and existing ports available in the two stroke engine. This work deals with air flow design of a fuel injected in two stroke engine. This design is to avoid scavenging problems of short circuiting and mixing.  Furthermore, a comparison of fuel distribution within the cylinder revealed that when injection occurs against gravity rather than with gravity, the distribution is greater, resulting in cleaner combustion. This study focused on the emission characteristics of  enriched fuel in the modified air flow of the engine found that enhanced combustion for reduced the greenhouse gases and less fuel consumption. The characteristics of engine performance and emission of an engine operated under dual fuel mode are compared and analyzed with a 2 stroke and 4 stroke engine. From the experimental analysis , it is confirmed for optimized result is done by using Diesel-RK software and flow analysis is done with  ANSYS FLUENT.

Is Six Sigma an Appropriate Approach to Evaluate Performance of Testing Laboratories?

Pranil V. Sawalakhe, Nitin P. Gudadhe

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 160-166

Six Sigma is a universal management approach implemented to companies like Motorola and General Electric. Acknowledging grand success in terms of global profitability and customer satisfaction in corporate world, Health care sector can also be benefited by the application of the same to achieve similar benefits in healthcare sector; Six Sigma is currently being spread in several laboratories around the world. Acknowledging this situation, few articles have been published in the peer-reviewed literature on this subject. The aim of this article is to clearly focus on different features of Six Sigma and its successful applications in testing laboratories, as well as to systematically review articles and books discussing Six Sigma strategy implementation in the laboratory field.

Step-wise Computational Analysis of Kinematics of 3 – Links Articulated Robotic Manipulator

C. C. Obasi, A. B. Ikharo, S. Ogbikaya, V. A. Balogun, A. Odaba, L. I. Ogbewey

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 8, 11 May 2021, Page 167-174

This paper presents a computational analysis of the kinematics of a three-link articulated robotic manipulator. The geometric location of the linking arms is used in the design of robot manipulators, which necessitates precise computational study. In order to estimate the robotic arm's location with respect to relation lengths and angle, the angle needed to shift the end effector to a desired position was measured and calculated using the Forward Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics methods. Using free body diagrams and computational estimation of the necessary parameters, a three-link robotic arm with a rigid rotational base was also demonstrated. The results of forward kinematics show that the robot end effector location can be determined using the values of x, y, and z coordinates, allowing for more precise monitoring and adaptation of the robot's arm/motion to its environment.