Dr. Anuj Kumar Goel
Associate Professor, Electronics and communication engineering Department, University Institute of Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali, Punjab, India.

ISBN 978-93-90888-01-6 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90888-06-1 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/aaer/v4

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include finite element analysis, piezoelectric compliance, ultrasonic vibration assisted milling, preparing surface edge treatment, vibration mechanism, machining automotive material, nozzle coolant system, thermal effect, round robin CPU scheduling algorithm, prioritize processes, residual burst time, specified time quantum mechanism,  polynomial characteristics, unsteady algebraic equation, criterion of stability,  attachment of polynomials, stability markers, roots of the algebraic equation, Hurwitz’s polynomial theory, Wiebe combustion model, high-rise residential technology, building information modeling, Neural machine translation, ergonomic interface, irrigation water quality, Coupled electromagnetic and temperature fields, electromagnetic processing of metals, induction heating, diffusion, mathematical modeling, tensile strength, hybrid power system, current electrification rate, hydropower, solar-battery. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.


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Finite element analysis for piezoelectric actuator has been developed in Ansys Software which are a program that can analyses and simulate the dynamic behaviour of piezoelectric. Ultrasonic Vibration assisted Milling (UVAM) process consist a combination of milling operation and vibration system on the compliance mechanism. The Ultrasonic Vibration assisted Milling (UVAM) experimental having a difficulty to investigate the effect of vibration mechanism where existence of error in material, mechanism and attachment of piezoelectric thus affect the amplitude and frequency of mechanical compliance during the machining of UVAM. This paper will investigate the modelling of piezoelectric compliance and follow the procedures of FEA to accurately predict the dynamic behaviour of compliance. The parameters for simulation of piezoelectric are voltage, electromechanical coupling and frequency. The compliance mechanism is model by using Solid Works 2014 and imported to Ansys Mechanical APDL Software were the piezoelectric are embedded on the mechanism. Modal analysis and harmonic analysis has been used in order to obtain the mode shape and displacement. The displacement of the compliance mechanism will be compare between simulation and experimental. The dynamic behaviour was discussed in simulation to study the reliability of the compliance mechanism before it safely used in UVAM. The displacement is important for compliance mechanism because it will affect the accuracy of the vibration of the work piece during machining. Natural frequency mode shape is a modal parameter that we can analyse and prevent the vibration problem causes by resonance.

The Effect of Nozzle Design Coolant Supply during Machining Automotive Material Al319

S. Zainal Ariffn, A. M. Efendee, M. Alias, A. A. M. Redhwan, M. N. Muhamed, Ahmad Razlan Yusoff

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 10-18

The thermal effect in adhesive wear and surface finish of Aluminum Alloy 319 (Al319) has a potential problem on the surface roughness, tool wear, and also temperature due to a tendency to melt during cutting process which can cause the formation of built up edge, the inaccuracy of the work pieces, damaged surface due to oxidation and rapid adhesive wear which reduces tool life. The objective of this research is to optimize nozzle coolant system in machining performance of aluminium alloy 319 to achieve a good surface roughness, lower temperature and increased tool wear by selecting suitable machining parameters of cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The variation orifice nozzle sizes used of nozzle from 1.0 mm to 5.0 mm were used with different machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) using on the CNC Lathe machine with 2 (two) axes movements, condition and conducted according to the fundamental response surface method (RSM) which is one of an alternative way to minimize the built up edge. By using of such variation combination of sizes of nozzle, the cutting process can be done at high cutting speed and the temperature can be controlled and minimized for the formation of built up edge. The formation of built up edge and thermal can degrade the surface roughness of the work piece. The expected outcome is the smallest of nozzle size used will minimize the thermal effects and reduce temperature which will lead to the reducing built – up edge (BUE) formation. Therefore, better surface roughness, minimized tool wear and low temperature can be achieved. This is due to coolant pointed generator can be directed at one point which dissipated heat from the chips. The compensation between the cutting fluid of the smallest nozzle size and the technique condition in machining process can also be offered to obtain productivity, high quality products, lower cost as well as minimizing the environmental effect (waste coolant produced). Current research is also beneficial to minimize and improve the productivity in machining industries. Consequently, reducing the dependent on the machining operators experience and skill.

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an optimised variant to the round robin scheduling algorithm. Every algorithm works in its own way and has its own merits and demerits. The proposed algorithm overcomes the shortfalls of the existing scheduling algorithms in terms of waiting time, turnaround time, throughput and number of context switches. The algorithm is pre-emptive and works based on the priority of the associated processes. The priority is decided on the basis of the remaining burst time of a particular process, that is; lower the burst time, higher the priority and higher the burst time, lower the priority. To complete the execution, a time quantum is initially specified. In case if the burst time of a particular process is less than 2X of the specified time quantum but more than 1X of the specified time quantum; the process is given high priority and is allowed to execute until it completes entirely and finishes. Such processes do not have to wait for their next burst cycle. In the proposed algorithm, the CPU utilization, throughput and response time is not considered. This algorithm is a basic enhancement to the traditional Round Robin. In the future, the time and space complexity will also be calculated and reduced if required. The working will be enhanced by incorporating Priority based scenario along with Shortest Job First.

The chapter presents influence of boundary conditions on mechanical and thermal stresses of an oil cooled piston in diesel engine Scania DC09074A and its deformation due to high combustion pressure and changeable temperature. Due to different fixing of the pin in the piston hub the deformation of the piston shape and von Misses stresses differ at the same boundary conditions. The piston is an indirect element in heat exchange in combustion engines, because it transfers the heat from the gas to cylinder walls by piston rings and some part of heat is transferred from the bottom surfaces of the piston to the gas inside the crankcase. Calculations of the piston loads were carried out by using 0D mathematical model at assumption of the Wiebe combustion model and the Woschni heat transfer model for homogenous mixture. For precise determination of the gas temperature in the combustion chamber the CFD technique was used and for that case the simulation of compression, combustion and expansion processes was carried out by using the program Fluent. The numerical calculations were done for two kinds of fuel: diesel oil and CNG. For proper work of CNG engine the compression ratio was decreased. This was done by reducing the volume of the combustion chamber. Calculations done in the program Ansys showed that the modification of the piston do not influence significantly on the total stresses. The chapter shows the differences of the total stresses and piston deformation at fastened piston hub and at “floating” piston pin. Most calculations are made at assumption that the piston hubs are fixed, but it is not right assumption. In summary the paper gives indications how to set boundary conditions for “floating” piston pin. Due to different fixing of the pin in the piston hub the deformation of the piston shape and von Misses stresses differ at the same boundary conditions The analysis has shown that FEM calculations of the piston should be done together with the pin for giving the engineers right information how to design the piston shape, usually “barrel-oval”, in order to enable a proper clearance between the piston and cylinder walls particularly at high loads.

Application of BIM in Multifamily Residential Design & Construction

Swarnali Ghosh Dastider, Matt Jefferies

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 73-80

The National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB) conducted an initial survey in 2014 about the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in residential construction. Their study concluded that although, BIM had not been widely adopted in the residential market yet, there was growing interest in BIM’s future use. Four years later, in 2018, the authors, Prof. Ghosh Dastider and Matt Jefferies used a similar research methodology to investigate the changes, if any, in BIM’s application in the residential market since the initial study in 2014. The authors reached out to several local and national designers and contractors to collect data regarding BIM’s usage in the projects they were involved in. They collected, tabulated, analyzed the data from 296 residential projects and compared them with the initial study. The resulted data showed a significant increase in BIM’s application in the multifamily residential industry. It also showed increased application in the construction firms along with design-build firms, as well as, non- design phases such as construction and life cycle analysis. Based on these results, the authors also concluded that BIM’s applications is very likely to accelerate in residential construction market in next few years beyond deigns and construction.

Deep Neural Networks for Multilingual Machine Translation

Meryem Boukrissa, Fadoua Ataa Allah

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 81-85

With the emergence of information and communication technologies and the democratization of the Internet content production, we are facing an informational tsunami of different languages. Newspapers and news websites contribute fully to this content, making the amount of daily circulating data on the web or the printed one hard to grasp. Admittedly, it is very difficult to manage and translate manually and even conventional IT tools struggle to deliver results in all languages. To overcome this challenge, we propose to explore deep learning for multilingual machine translation.

This paper presents our newly developed neural text?to?text translation system and its evaluation. The realization of this system has consisted on the corpora elaboration and two deep neural processing modules for machine translation. The system allows users to get the corresponding translated sentences to the sentences that they fed to it, displayed on an ergonomic interface.

Odisha, an agrarian state along east coast of India has seven districts behind 480 km coast of Bay of Bengal. Agriculture and livelihood in Odisha is impossible without rain and ground water. Hoary capricious use of water for irrigation and water supply is orthodox and unethical. Inland anthropogenic stress and salinity intrusion of highly populated coastal districts has made ground water unfit for agriculture along the coastal areas. Yield augmentation is intricately allied with quality of the aquifer geometry, ground water, flow regime and its quality. Coastal Odisha is ?14700 km2 area, and accommodating ?1.26 mi people extending ?20-25 Km inland. The land cover of mangroves, sodden crops, alluvial flora, waterlogged swamps, deciduous forests, and sandy dunes is allowing six anastomosed river system to debouch Bay of Bengal. The edaphic factors demand upgrading of brackish water in its aquifers. The physicochemical parameters like pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, values of dissolved ionic constituents (Na+, Mg++, Ca++,K+) of its wells/tube wells water used for irrigation are studied for the years 2009-2014, Rainfall (2008-2020), flow through rivers and the yield of paddy. The Water quality indices like Sodium absorption ratio, Kelly’s index, and Permeability Index and many others of the collected underground water are calculated to discuss their suitability for use as irrigation water in the area and found safe. The Various water management strategies are studied, and ongoing moderation procedures are reflected so that the ground water of coastal Odisha can be fruitfully used for irrigation.

New Approach: Induction Heat Treatment of Large Diameter Pipes and Coils

V. Demidovich, Yu. Perevalov

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 108-114

New approach of designing and control of induction heat treatment installations with utilizing of numerical models is developed. Models include two-dimensional simulation of coupling electromagnetic and temperature fields in cylindrical systems for processing of pipes and rolls. Also, thermal and structural tension during heating and cooling of pipes and rolls are simulated. These data allow defining structure, hardness, the size of grain and other properties of the pipes and rolls. They allow optimizing design and a choice of equipment, a heat treatment mode for achievement of the maximum quality and minimization of energy consumption. The developed models were used not only for the design of induction heat treatment systems of pipes and rolls, but also for a digital control of these complexes. New technologies for induction heat treatment of large diameter pipes (40”– 62”) and rolls of rolling mills with a barrel diameter of up to 65” are developed. Developed computer control systems use specialized numerical models that provide high quality heat treatment and minimize residual stresses.

Current Trends in Diffusion Bonding of a Titanium Alloy to a Stainless Steel with an Aluminium Alloy Interlayer

K. Chandrappa, Amit Kumar, Kumar Shubham

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 115-122

Diffusion bonding is the process of joining similar or dissimilar materials at the interface rather than edge joining using welding process or other metal joining processes. It is a solid state welding process carried out under the conditions of soaking temperature, bonding time and load on the surfaces to be joined. Generally this is carried out under vacuum or inert atmosphere to avoid interface reactions to actuate the corrosion. The diffusion bonding process is a means of transferring atoms from one surface to another and breaking of aspirates on the surfaces of bonding or diff using of clusters of atoms of the similar and dissimilar metals. Diffusion bonding process done at different conditions of temperature, bonding time and load. These parameters are optimised for better bond strength, the bonded specimens are analysed for micro structural changes and bond strength since diffusion bonding is an atomic transfer between the surfaces. The micro hardness test is conducted to evaluate the bond strength at the interface. The strength of the bond can be improved by inserting another material at the interface as an interlayer. The base metal titanium with stainless steel is bonded with aluminium as an interlayer.

Frequency Multiplier with Delay Locked Loop -Based Clock Generator for System on Chip Applications

G. Prasanna Kumar, J. Prabhakar, Nagulancha Raju

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 123-131

Any implementation of something like a specific form of the multiplier in automated frequency measurement systems depends primarily on the overall permitted variance of both the output frequency of that same transducer. Therefore, it will be usually best to always use frequency multipliers of that first category in transducers with such a slight variance. The suggested edge incorporates optimal speed and reliable activity that used an organizational structure as well as an unselected overlap. The suggested hybrid digital edge solution provides broadband with low-energy and low-area benefits as well as being a potential candidate for low-energy frequency summaries in deep CMOS sub-micrometer. A charge pump was substituted by a counter to integrate the automated interface. The overall system consists of all the resources for doing the operation of stable clock pulses for system on chip applications as well as the frequency multiplier. The frequency multiplying method is carried out how to use a clock amplification system based on an edge combiner, which is carried out using the C2MOS logic. Eventually, a computational review to verify the output is done. It is evident in contrast with other designs that this system absorbs less power than others do in the same phase.

The aim of the work is to study the regularities of the influence of the quality of the appearance of coatings on their durability during the operation. Object of research - paint and varnish coatings of building products and construction. Information on the effect on the longevity of coatings of the quality of their appearance is given. It is shown, that coatings with a high roughness index are characterized by low durability during exploitation. Are revealed the influence of the rheological properties of the paint, the porosity of the substrate on the surface roughness of the coatings. Determined, that regardless of the type of paint composition, the strength and relative deformations are reduced, the plastic deformation is increased and the elastic deformation are reduced with increasing roughness of surfaces. A mathematical model is obtained of the dependence of the tensile strength on the roughness of the surface of the films. It is established, that during the moistening of the coatings in the first stage (up to 30 days), the roughness of the surface is reduced, i.e., the surface micro relief is levelled due to the plasticizing effect of moisture (swelling of the coatings). In the future, due to the destructive effect of moisture, the surface roughness increases, caused by the appearance of micro cracks, rashes, and bubbles. It is established, that in the process of cyclic freezing-thawing the cracks appear locally and are formed near defects on the surface of the coating. The researches allow to develop recommendations for increasing the resistance of coatings and to select the optimum rheological properties of paints depending on the porosity of the substrate.

Design of Stand-alone Solar-Wind-Hydro Based Hybrid Power System: Case of Rural Village in Malawi

Sylvester William Chisale, Zaki Sari

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 139-155

Malawi has current electrification rate of less than 10% for a population of 18 million connected to the grid. The electricity generation company in Malawi (EGENCO) is greatly affected by low water levels making it difficult to satisfy the existing demand of electricity. This makes it difficult for Malawi to extend its National electricity grid. Thus, the aim of the study is to design stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system which is economically and technically feasible with focus on hydropower, wind, solar and battery bank within Dwangwa area. The study area is estimated to have 420 households, commercial and public service load with primary load demand of 5,556.31 kWh/day and peak load of 302.93 kW. River discharge data were collected from ministry of irrigation and water development while solar and wind data were collected from NASA. HOMER modeling tool was used to design a stand-alone system. From simulation results, the best design flow for Dwangwa river is 159 L/s at elevation of 100 metres and the best hybrid system combination was hydropower-wind-solar-battery and converter. The whole hybrid system initial capital cost was $2,662,638 while Net present cost (NPC) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were $3,597,197 and $0.134/kWh respectively. However, the cost of electricity in Malawi on the grid is K88.02/kWh ($0.11/kWh) which makes the system expensive. Therefore, the study has shown that the hybrid system is not economically viable. However, Government intervention can help to make the system monetarily acceptable and viable.

Automatic Book Rack System with Expandable Clasp Holder: A Short Review

Aniket Pathak, Wilfred Fernandez, Hit Mistry, Nithin Oommen, Ravi Dabla

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 4, 9 April 2021, Page 156-163

In the light of number of universities and libraries consistently increasing and book storage/ maintenance becoming a difficult task, there is a need to design a system which will reduce manual work as well as minimise the problem of using the book racks. The review is done to identify the various shortcomings of the present system and overcome the flaws faced such as accessing books at height, cleaning the shelves at the topmost compartment and holding the books upright in proper position. The automatic book rack system includes shelf, expandable clasp housing that is movable and connected to the shelf. The housing includes a noiseless electric motor and a pair of chain and sprockets. The electric motor, chain sprockets work in conjunction to achieve linear motion of the housing along the shelf. The expandable clasp can support the books in an upright, side by side arrangement on the shelf. Once a book is removed from the shelf the clasp housing is automatically repositioned to push the remaining books together and close any resulting gaps between the remaining books keeping them upright. Exemplary systems according to present disclosure include the mechanism that permit reliable and efficient repositioning of one or more shelves, thereby enhancing utilization and efficiencies associated therewith. For completion of this task we have successfully designed the automatic book rack and with suitable material selection the ABR system has been fabricated.