Editor(s)
Dr. Yong X. Gan
Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, USA.

ISBN 978-93-90768-20-2 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-21-9 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include distance based clustering, line based clustering, height based clustering, license plate detection, missed characters extraction, infinite thinning and thickening, analog loop filters, CMOS technologies, SOBEK program, sedimentation dynamics, network performance, multidrop autowalk, CO2 emissions, avian influenza virus, mutant virus, migration, thermal conductivity, exothermic chemical reaction, variable thermal conductivity, heat transfer, green house gas, combustion quality, flue gas emissions, particle swarm optimization and feature extraction, colony optimisation, photovoltaic cell, Vlasov’s model for solids, diffusion model, Vlasov's equation, fuelwood utilization, amelioration, microcontroller, path planning, temperature sensor. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.

Media Promotion:

### Chapters

##### Multiple License Plates Detection in Videos and Still Images Using Various Geometrical Properties and Filtering Techniques

Narasimha Reddy Soora

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 1-25
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/1527F

Most of the existing license plate (LP) detection systems have shown significant development in processing of images, with restrictions related to environmental conditions and plate variations. The environmental conditions include different illumination, weather, and background conditions. The plate variations include location of the plate anywhere on the vehicle, many plates in single image, different combination of vehicles with different plate orientations, different sizes of plates, background colour of plates, plates with dirt, rotated plates, LPs having two lines of characters and tilted plates. With increased mobility and internationalization, there is a need to develop a universal LP detection system, which can handle LPs of any country and any vehicle, including motor cycles, in an open environment and all weather conditions. This paper presents a novel LP detection method using different clustering techniques, based on geometrical properties of the LP characters and proposed new character extraction method, for missed character components of LP due to presence of noise between LP characters and LP border. The proposed method detects the number plate of any type of vehicle (including vans, cars, trucks, motorcycles etc.), having different plate variations, under different environmental and weather conditions because of geometrical properties of set of characters in LP.

The proposed method is independent of colour, rotation, and scale variances of LP. The concept is tested using publicly available standard media-lab and Application Oriented License Plate (AOLP) benchmark LP recognition databases. The success rate of the proposed approach for LP detection using media-lab database is 97.3% and using AOLP database is 93.7%. Results clearly indicate that the proposed approach is comparable to the previously published papers, which evaluated their performance on publicly available benchmark databases.

##### Detailed Study on a Robust and Efficient Fault-Resilient Rad Hard ADPLL

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 26-40
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/3579D

Typically, classical PLLs adopt analog design methods. However integrating PLL with noise-prone application environment is highly tedious and somewhere confined. As per current knowledge majority of PLLs apply Analog Loop Filters (ALFs) and Voltage Controlled Oscillators which are practically highly complicated to integrate with noisy environment. Even the traditional PLLs can’t be ported to the advanced processors. In last few years, the emergence of deep-submicron CMOS technologies have enabled digitization of major traditional analog circuits, comprising the analog PLLs that as a result could be vital to overcome above mentioned issues and to achieve more efficient solution than classical analog implementation. The proposed ADPLL model uses a FDLC based architecture. This architecture model outperforms classical FD-ADPLL model in terms of computational time, power consumption and cost.

##### Assessment and Prediction of Canal Erosion on Tidal Swamp Delta Telang I, Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra

Achmad Syarifudin, Henggar Risa Destania, Yunan Hamdani

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 41-49
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7327D

Surface water dynamics at swamp region either in tertiary compartment also at canals very influenced by several conditions, among others: total rainfall, hydro-topography, potential high water overflow, potential drainage, water order network condition, and water order building operation. Tidal swamp region characteristics very unique in comparison with technical irrigation region because the water availability ebb swamp region always supply from high water and lessened sea water has special character that is has acidity, contain pyrites, peat and met existence intrusion brine at the (time) of dry season. For that entire components must be evaluated and at analysis to support plants amount of water required fulfillment efforts. The canals need observation data directly at field so that can accurate observation data. In the manner likes this need time, energy and cost big enough. Therefore, computer model use to guess and evaluate network performance is a correct solution. Related to troubleshoot above, so necessary existence to watchfulness besides to evaluate existing drainage system performance in water face control at also necessary channel stability analysis in the effort support operation and channel maintenance. Supposed to this watchfulness can describe according to intact process the happening of erosion and sedimentation at channel, environment service aspect and qualitatively model constructively SOBEK software can explain sedimentation dynamics in canals at tidal swamp region. This System monitoring also recommend where and what is total minimal water face observation at canals and farming tune with climate data observation.

##### Recent Advancements on Design and Development of Multi Drop Auto-Walk

G. Swaminathan, S. D. Kumar, A. Mathivanan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 50-58
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7629D

At present environment, especially in the urban cities, peoples are very busy and moving continuously and rapidly. With the advancement in technologies, there is a huge opportunity to full fill this people flow experience. Autowalk which is also called as walkalator or movelator is a device used as a mode for transporting the peoples horizontally or laterally from one point to another. The proposed device consists of a pulley with belt arrangement or can be a pallet type of arrangement which is being driven by a motor. Autowalk available in the market today can only transport the people from one point to another, however, for the place where people has to move in a wide spread direction, rather than the point to point there is a need for some devices or some modifications in the existing setup to satisfy those needs. No doubt the development and advancement in technology and the simultaneous growth in people modern lifestyle always give a way for a demand in solution for a better lifestyle. In this multidrop autowalk the people flow traffic is optimized by providing the sub-platform which moves simultaneously along with the main lane. This multidrop autowalk can be widely used in departmental stores, airports, shopping malls, theme park, exhibitions, etc. And this attempt will give be a mark on development path meeting such need.

##### Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus by Humpback Whale and Its Stranding along the Atlantic Coast with CO2 Emissions

Tai-Jin Kim

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 59-81
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/1528F

Humpback whales are migratory, spending summers in cooler, high-latitude waters and mating and calving in tropical and subtropical waters in 14 identified district population segments. It may be possible that the coastal areas are infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) during the release of infected humpback whale feces. Therefore, humpback whales can be an effective reservoir of the avian influenza virus (AIV) from the Poles to the Continents to spread AIV to coastal animals. Strong ultraviolet (UV) exposure amidst CO2 emission increase and minimal sunspot number might cause mutations of aquatic virus, and humpback whale in the Antarctic and the Arctic. LPAI or highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) are expressed in the Continents under appropriate environmental factors. Since penguins are birds while humpback whales are marine mammals, the humpback whales infected by the mutant virus might cause interspecies transmission to a new host with evolutionary changes. The migration pattern is seasonally similar between migratory bird and humpback whale except, 1) different species of bird versus whale, 2) different landing area of land versus coast, 3) similar infection means of bird feces versus humpback whale feces. The contribution of AIV transmission by whales was several times larger than that by migratory birds. Therefore, the routes of humpback whales should be considered to prevent AIV outbreaks in addition to the flyways of migratory birds. Humpback whale stranding (y) along the Atlantic Coast of the USA were related with CO2 emissions (x) to have y=0.3515x+18.595 (R2=0.4069) during 1992-2016 while y=0.0652x+4.5847  (R2=0.6128) during 2016-2018. AIV outbreak in 2010 (y) along the Atlantic Coast was also related with humpback whale stranding (2016-2018) (x) as y=0.1387x+6.8184 (R2=0.3966). Since AIV outbreak was linearly (R2=0.9967) related with the minimum sunspot number, it was postulated that the unusual mortality events of humpback whale stranding might be caused by an infected mutant virus in the Arctic. Consequently, the humpback whales were stranded along major CO2 producing Atlantic Coast States toward the winter habitat of the West Indies during the CO2 emissions and the minimal sunspot number with strong UV radiation. The stranded dead whales should be burned as soon as possible to prevent further deadly viral interspecies transmission of AIV by the coastal animals. Since CO2 emissions were increased in 2017 and the sunspot number was minimal at the end of 2018, serious numbers of whales are expected to be stranded at the Gulf of Maine, States of North Carolina, New York, and Virginia from November 2018 till April 2019. To save humpback whales from the unusual mortality event along the Atlantic Coast, the reduction of CO2 emissions is suggested by replacement of fossil fuels combustion plants with nuclear power plants along the Atlantic Coast of the USA.

##### Recent Study on Heat Transfer Analysis for a Sphere of Combustible Material of Variable Thermal Conductivity

Ramoshweu Solomon Lebelo

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 82-91
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7287D

This article considers an exothermic chemical reaction taking place in a stockpile of reactive material with thermal conductivity that is temperature dependent. The study is modeled in a spherical domain whose carbon containing material reacts spontaneously with the oxygen trapped within the system. The combustion process results with complicated process that is nonlinear in nature, and the energy equation used to govern the problem is tackled numerically with the semi-implicit finite difference method (FDM). The results are depicted graphically and discussed to give a theoretical understanding of the heat transfer analysis during combustion.  This study was done theoretically to make the understanding of the combustion process in a cheaper and a quicker way compared to the experimental one. The understanding of the imbedded parameters on heat transfer can help in the control of self-ignition process in the storage of reactive materials. This study can be extended to two-step exothermic chemical reaction processes.

##### Impact of Green House Gases from Thermal Power Plants

K. Sujatha, R. Krishnakumar, R. S. Ponmagal, N. Jayachitra, Nallamilli. P. G. Bhavani, B. Deepa Lakshmi, A. Raja, B. Rengammal Sankari, V. Karthikeyan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 92-103
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7659D

Scrutiny of combustion quality and its equivalent NOx emissions from flame images in thermal and gas turbine power plants is of immense significance in the realm of climate change. A remote monitoring scheme using image processing, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) to efficiently minimize the flue gas emissions can be carried out. The principal goal is in detection, recognition and understanding of combustion conditions in power plants ensuring low green house or flue gas emissions which contribute to climate change. In this work, smart sensors using feed forward neural network with Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are used for estimation of various flue emissions. This scheme uses the information from the colour of the flame images in the combustion chamber at power plants, which is the foundation for obtaining high combustion quality and low flue gas emissions. The initial gait is to describe a facet vector for each flame image including 10 feature elements. Image Enhancement is done to obtain distinctive attributes from the captured images. The perception of object (flame feature) recognition and classification of the flame image is conceded out to measure the combustion quality and flue gas emissions from the flame colour. The samples including some flame images, parts of which are used to train and test the model. Finally, the entire samples are recognized and classified. Experiments prove that flame image classification to be an effective monitoring scheme for reducing the flue gas emissions.

##### Advanced Study on Electrically Operated Multipurpose Trolley

Al Sult Al Kharusi, Dinesh Keloth Kaithari, Parimal S. Bhambare

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 104-113
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7614D

##### Vlasov's Physics: From Plasma to Solid

V. I. Talanin, I. E. Talanin

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 114-119
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7678D

The basic principles of Vlasov's physics are considered from a general point of view. The reliability of his judgments about the application of nonlocal statistical mechanics to real solids is shown. The possibilities of Vlasov's physics for a reliable description of matter are discussed.

##### Evaluation of Indigenous Knowledge and Fuel Value Index of Some Selected Sudano-Sahelian Fuelwood Species in Damaturu, Yobe State of Nigeria

A. M. Dadile, O. A. Sotannde

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 120-129
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/2369E

Fuelwood utilization in the sudano-sahelian region requires massive felling of tree species which in turn resulted to deforestation and sand dunce couple with scarce vegetation in the region. Moreover, fuelwood is not only used for domestic and commercial purposes but for livelihood sustenance. However, the increase in demand and intensity of fuelwood resulted to indiscriminate felling of trees species for energy use, with a trend that does not appear to have the possibility of meeting the increasing demand in the future. Meanwhile, the study aimed at evaluating the indigenous knowledge of fuelwood and fuel value index (FVI) of ten selected sudano-sahelian fuelwood species and the results reveals a significant relationship between the indigenous knowledge and Fuel value index (FVI) of the ten selected fuelwood species. Higher FVI of 13.56MJ/m3 % 2 was obtained in A. leiocarpus followed by 6.61 MJ/m3 % 2 and 6.53MJ/m3 % 2 obtained in B. aegyptiaca and C. arereh meanwhile, lower energy fuelwood ranged from 0.11MJ/m3% 2 obtained in C. lamprocarpum. to 0. 85MJ/m3% 2, in S. birrea respectively. Meanwhile, A. leiocarpus, C. arereh, C. molle, and B. aegyptiaca were the most preferred and possessed good fuel quality. The indigenous knowledge might not be solely based on their fuel properties but availability and other possible reasons. Therefore, those fuelwood species identified with higher energy value can be incorporated in to fuelwood plantation establishment programs and those with lower energy value fuelwood should be allowed for environmental restoration and amelioration.

##### Automated Guided Vehicle for Physically Handicapped People – A Cost Effective Approach

G. Arun Kumar, S. Lakshmisankar

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 130-139
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7469D

Automated Guided vehicle (AGV) is like a robot that can deliver the materials from the supply area to the technician automatically. This is faster and more efficient. The robot can be accessed wirelessly. A technician can directly control the robot to deliver the components rather than control it via a human operator (over phone, computer etc. who has to program the robot or ask a delivery person to make the delivery). Automated Guided Vehicle or AGV is one of material handling equipment that has been widely used in most manufacturing industry today as it provides more flexibility to the systems, the design of this AGV has to be done properly in order the maximize the usability of this AGV. The vehicle is automatically guided through its ways. To avoid collisions a proximity sensor is attached to the system. The sensor senses the signals of the obstacles and can stop the vehicle in the presence of obstacles. Thus vehicle can avoid accidents that can be very useful to the present industrial trend and material handling and equipment handling will be automated and easy time saving methodology.

##### Wear and Microstructure Characteristics of Friction Stir Processed Al6063/B4C+SiO2 Composites

D. Dinesh, A. Megalingam, G. Rajamurugan, M. Arundeep, A. Tajdeen

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 140-150
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/7645D

Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is an effective solid state surface modification technique over conventional processing technologies. FSP is considered to be a relatively an attractive technique employ by non- consumable rotating tool with square pin and shoulder. In the present work, the two reinforcement particles of B4C and SiO2 with different weight ratio were compacted in a square groove of 1.9mm width and 3mm depth on Al 6063 alloy. Al 6063 surface hybrid composites is obtained through friction stir processing by means of a non- consumable tool. The tool is made of High speed steel hardened to 51HRC of square probe which is rotated at constant rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force of 1200 rpm, 40mm/min, and 8 kN respectively. The homogeneity of reinforced particles in Al matrix material has been evaluated through microstructure by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the wear resistance was analyzed through pin –on –disc tribometer at different loads. The results revealed that the distribution of the reinforced particles was uniform and the grain size refinement of an average size of 8 $$\mu$$m has been obtained through multipass FSP. Specific wear rate varies based on applied load and weight ratio of B4C and SiO2.

##### Recent Study on Design and Development of a Wearable Device to Monitor Vital Signs of Preggers

L. K. Hema, R. Mohana Priya, K. L. Shunmuganathan, S. Velmurugan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 151-158
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/3783D

As the growth of the technology rises day to day but still we cannot able to overlook any wearable device which is the friendliest one for pregnant women. Our proposed system is a wearable device which monitors the health condition of expectant mothers’ and transmits data to the respective physician especially in rural areas. With these kinds of real time wearable systems, doctors are able to provide higher quality medical services and more personalized healthcare to these women. This health monitoring system would allow a pregnant woman to interact with a physician with almost full functional capability. Preventive measure taken by continuous health monitoring of patient from early stages and guidance to avoid prenatal risks is the prime objective of this system. It is only applicable after 16 weeks of pregnancy. The health monitoring device constantly measures the body temperature and heartbeat of the womb and whenever there are fluctuations from the normal value it sends the information to gynaecologist at remote place through GSM. The usage of these advanced technologies for pregnant women’s care facilitates optimal care to them and thereby pregnancy period mortality can be reduced substantially.

##### Research on Experimental Behaviour of Water Hyacinth Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement on Short Column

V. Murugesh, A. Thirumurugan, M. Sadhasivam, M. Sudharsanan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 3, 22 February 2021, Page 159-167
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v3/5107D

The present study on investigations of short column concrete under axial loading condition with the substitute for cement by water hyacinth ash (WHA). The strength of the column can be investigated with different proportions of cement replacement by 0% and 10%, of the cement weight for M30.WHA replacement increases to concrete it delays the setting time of concrete and also affect the potency of concrete. A total of five columns consisting of two conventional RCC columns, three RCC column with 10% replacement, was tested. The experimental result reveals that the optimal percentage of addition of WHA to the concrete was found to be 10% with respect to the weight of cement. Results show that WHA is used as a substitute cement substance in concrete. For higher replacement of WHA in cement, the compressive strength and split tensile strength gets decrease.