Editor

Dr. Gnana Sheela K
Professor,
Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.

ISBN 978-93-90768-14-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90768-15-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2

This book covers key areas of engineering research. The contributions by the authors include applied ecology, landscape planning, renewable energy, biodiversity, ecological network, sustainability, lateral stability, code provisions, flexural, flanges, biochar, energy band-gap, photovoltaic, pseudo-potentiality, quantum simulation, frozen spermatozoa quality, palm date extract, frozen spermatozoa quality, quantum dots, spherical quantum dot, cylindrical quantum dot,  magnetic field,  binding energy, donor impurity, diamagnetic susceptibility, breast cancer detection, wearable antenna, neural network, dental composite, titanate coupling agent, denture base composite, hydrolytic degradation, aqueous environment, green logistics, green packing, recyclable materials, marine operations, weather restrictions, risk analysis, compressor noise, stator frame, load analysis, parametric accelerated life testing, breast cancer, machine learning models, logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, oil recovery techniques, carbonate reservoir, two phase ejector, bi-evaporator, numerical simulation, compliant mechanisms, geometric advantage, topology optimization. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering research.

 

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Chapters


With the aim to decarbonize the economy for sustainability, specific European policies have pushed the transformation of many agricultural crops to PhotoVoltaic (PV) farms. The realization of ground-based PV farms requires suitable spaces producing several environmental impacts on landscapes and biodiversity caused by site modifications. The concept of multifunctionality integrated into landscape design is a suitable analytical framework to develop sustainability strategies of land use for renewable energies. The aim of this work is to discuss two examples of multifunctionality land-use projects in the energy transition in the Apulia Region. The study proposes a methodology to harmonize energy production and the enhancement of ecosystem services, looking for a synergy between different economic activities and stakeholders. This s the base to develop green infrastructure (GI) in the landscape producing more sustainability in energy transition planning. Different from the usual design of photovoltaic panels in farmlands, the examples reported focused on a proposal of the combination of photovoltaic panels and biodiversity and ecological functions focused on food; water, raw materials, and medicinal resources provisioning services to support economic and social needs. Moreover, this green infrastructure can improve regulations services like Air quality regulation, climate regulation, waste treatment, Maintenance of soil fertility, and Pollination to reduce the environmental impact of photovoltaic farms. Mainly, climate regulation services can improve energy production reducing temperature around the photovoltaic panels producing strong feedback in the business process. These GI can represent habitat services in the landscape supporting maintenance of life cycles of migratory species and Maintenance of genetic diversity. These projects need a new vision of environmental aspects that should not be treated only as potential impacts of human activity or as mitigation strategies, but as an active part of the photovoltaic design and, more generally, energy transition planning.

Does the Web of Seismic Walls Play a Role to Their Out-of-Plane Stability?

Theodoros Chrysanidis, Ioannis Tegos

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 15-22
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/7485D

Lately, there is an international worry about the seismic behavior of structural walls, mainly concerning their lateral instability under intense seismic loading. The possibility of failure because of lateral instability is limited significantly with the proper choice of an adequate thickness. It is widely known that EC8 and the Greek Concrete Code require as a minimum thickness of shear walls 1/20 of the storey height, for walls having a rectangular section. Seismic codes, well-known and approved internationally, like the New Zealand and the American seismic code, have moved to more conservative choices concerning the minimum thickness of shear walls (1/10 of storey height the first and 1/16 the second). Flexural overstrain is the main cause that produces this lateral instability. Flexural overstrain in its turn is allowed due to the continuously increment of maximum acceptable tensile strain of steel bars. This deep excursion in the yield region of the boundary parts of shear walls increases dramatically their flexibility. At the same time these walls are liable to a reversing axial loading (tension – compression), due to seismic action and so their lateral stability is at stake. The current work dealing with these aspects is experimental and examines the influence of the web of shear walls in the halting (or not) of lateral instability.

Iron and steel industry is one of the highest carbon dioxide emissions contributors in global carbon dioxide emissions especially in sintering process. In order to reduce pollutant emissions from iron and steel industry, biomass has been widely proposed as an alternative cleaner and renewable fuel. In the iron sintering, it is desirable to substitute coke with biochar since this process contributes a huge amount of greenhouse gases. In this work, coke was substituted with biochar derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as an alternative fuel in the sintering of iron ore. Biochar was produced from EFB at 450°C at a heating rate of 10°C/min, and held for 30 minutes. Sinter was first, prepared by mixing iron ore, biochar, and limestone with water as the binding agent in a ceramic bowl to produce green sample with various ratio biochar and iron ore with fixed 1% limestone. The sinter was examined in terms of ability to remove the oxygen. Apparently, the highest reducibility for the sinter that contains 5% of biochar content is 77.77%. The phase change suggested that at high temperature (1150°C) the sinter can be reduced to metallic iron. The utilization of biochar from EFB as an energy source for sintering of Malaysian iron ore is feasible to produce metallic iron for iron making process. Thus, when the process is applied industrially, it will reduce CO2 emission in iron steel industry by replacing a part of coke as energy source.

Determination of the Energy Band Gap of Silicon Using Quantum Simulation for Photovoltaic Applications

M. A. Bilya, M. U. Sarki, A. A. Mundi

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 34-40
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/2366E

This research deals with the study of the band structure, and density of state of silicon, using the first-principles pseudopotential method, based on the density functional theory (DFT) and the plane-wave method as implemented into Quantum Espresso (this is an open source software for Research of the Electronic Structure, Simulations, and Optimizations of materials) package. The value of the band gap found ranges between -0.2 to +0.6 eV. From the DOS graph we can observe the peaks from – 3.0 eV to – 3.5eV, and 5.50eV to 7.5eV for Si Material.

Palm juice, known by several local names, is an alcoholic beverages gotten naturally from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the Palmyra, date palms and coconut palms. It is known by various names in different regions and is common in various parts of Asia. Therefore, this study aims to determine the combined effect of 6% glycerol with different concentrations of palm date juice on the quality of spermatozoa of the giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1970), post-frozen storage. The giant grouper semen was obtained using the hand stripping method, and the diluent used is a mixture of marine fish ringers, 6% glycerol, and different concentrations of palm date extract (5%; 10%; 15%; 20%; and 25%). Furthermore, equilibration was carried out at 4 ºC for 10 minutes, and the sperm storage was carried out at -20°C for 48 hours. Thawing was carried out at 45 ºC for 30 seconds. The evaluation of semen was carried out macroscopically (color, volume, and pH) and microscopically (motility, viability, and abnormalities) as well as the ability to fertilize the eggs of the tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscogutatus (Forskal, 1775). Based on the results of the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test, there was a significant difference (p <0.05) in the motility, abnormalities, and the ability of post-frozen giant grouper spermatozoa to fertilize, but this had no significant effect (p> 0.05) on spermatozoa viability. The results showed that the treatment of 10% palm date juice was the optimum concentration because it showed the average percentage value of motility, and the highest fertility was 76.70 ± 1.54% and 66.25 ± 3.23%, and the lowest abnormality was 21.53 ± 0.84%, meanwhile, the percentage of viability was 77.67 ± 5.78%.

The grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus is a vulnerable species of high economic value, therefore this study aims to determine the effect of the combination of 6% glycerol with different concentrations of egg yolk on the quality of grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus spermatozoa of post-cryopreservation (Bloch, 1970). A grouper giant semen fish were obtained using the stripping method. The diluent consists of Marine Fish Ringer, 6% glycerol and different concentrations of egg yolk (0%; 5%; 10%; 15%; 20%; and 25%). The equilibration was performed at 4ºC for 10 minutes, and freezing was carried out at (-20ºC) for 48 hours using a freezer, as well as defrosting at 45ºC for 30-60 seconds. The evaluation of semen was carried out macroscopically (color, volume, and pH) and microscopically (motility, viability, and abnormality) as well as the ability to fertilize the tigers grouper eggs. Based on the ANOVA and Tukey test, there was a significant difference (p< 0.05) in motility, viability, and ability to fertilize post-cryopreserved grouper spermatozoa, but there was no significant effect on the maintenance after post-cryopreserved spermatozoa abnormalities (p> 0.05). The results showed that 15% of the egg yolk treatment was the optimum concentration because it produces the highest mean percentage values of motility, viability and the fertilization ability of 83.64 ± 1.72%, 81.44 ± 2.06% and 77.31 ± 1.90%, respectively. The lowest average value correspond with the percentage of abnormalities of 21.50 ± 1.20%.

Diamagnetic Susceptibility of a Magneto-Donor in GaAs Spherical and Cylindrical Quantum Dot

S. Janati. Edrissi, I. Zorkani, K. Rahmani, A. Jorio

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 54-64
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/7259D

The form effect on the binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility of a shallow donor confined to move in Quantum Dots ‘QD’ in the presence of a magnetic field is theoretically investigated. For higher field strength and large dot, the magnetic field effects are predominant. The numerical calculations are performed in the effective mass approximation, using a variational method. We describe the effect of the quantum confinement by an infinite deep potential. The form effect is studied for the Spherical Quantum Dot ‘SQD’ and Cylindrical Quantum Dot ‘CQD’. The results for these two forms of structures show that the diamagnetic susceptibility and the binding energy increase with the magnetic field. There are more pronounced for larger dot. We remark that for a zero magnetic field, the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility are decreasing functions of the quantum dot dimension and compared with theoretical results in literature. We hope that this work will stimulate further experimental activity on donors in quantum dot structures.

Performance Analysis on UWB Antennas for Breast Cancer Detection

V. Vijayasarveswari, M. Jusoh, T. Sabapathy, S. Khatun

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 65-74
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/7401D

Breast cancer is a common disease among women and death figure is continuing to increase. As there is no remedy in the late stage, early breast cancer detection is crucial. Ultra wide-band (UWB) is the promising candidate for its specificity and lack of ionizing radiation. This chapter presents the performance analysis of different types of UWB antennas for breast cancer detection. The antennas’ performance is compared based on the accuracy obtained from the neural network (NN) module for each UWB antennas. Three types of antennas which are taken into the account are UWB patch, UWB pyramidal and UWB horn antennas. UWB signals are transmitted from one antenna and received by another antenna. Both forward and backward scattered UWB signals are collected. The collected signals are fed into developed NN module to measure the performance accuracy of each antenna. UWB pyramidal antenna (90.55%) performs better compared to UWB horn (87.11%) and UWB patch (83.14%) antennas for both signal scattered methods. Backward scattered method (89.17%) achieves better accuracy for detection compare to forward scattered method (84.69). These results indeed give us the assurance of early breast cancer detection and save precious lives.

Titanium-based Additives for Dental Polymer Composites

Nidal W. Elshereksi, Mariyam J. Ghazali, Andanastuti Muchtar, Che H. Azhari

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 75-95
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/7285D

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is broadly employed in dental technology due to its easy handling, exceptional appearance, lack of toxicity and biocompatibility. However, this material as an ideal dental base is still restricted by a few limitations such as poor strength and radiopacity. Attempts to improve the mechanical and radiopacity properties of denture base materials through the inclusion of silica-based fillers are ongoing. Although silanated silica-based fillers are frequently exploited, they are not adequately strong. They also exhibit cracks, which either cut through the glass fillers or propagate around the filler particles. Such deficiency occurs when the dental composites are placed in the aqueous oral environment because of the hydrolytic degradation of siliceous fillers and silane-coupling agents. The clinical problem of using silanes in adhesion promotion is bond degradation over time in the oral environment. Moreover, silanes do not bond efficiently to nonsilica-based dental restorative composites. Therefore, the selection of suitable materials is very important to obtain better compatibility among the composites’ phases leading to the promotion of the resultant materials’ longevity. This chapter presents titanium-based fillers as alternatives to siliceous fillers. It includes PMMA composite as a denture base, Interfacial phase and coupling agents, Titanium-based fillers in prosthetic dentistry, Titanate-treated titanium-based fillers. Titanates are found to be effective couplers in treating Ti-based fillers because of their chemical compatibility and relatively high stability in a humid environment.

Two out of every three clients prefer eco-friendly brands from diet products to travel products and they are also eager to pay more for the service, based on Boston consulting group’s survey. The front interface of any finished product with consumer are: packing design and materials, have to facilitate the common goal of reducing carbon prints. To attain the low carbon emitted packing, a tool designed with policies named as ‘Green packing’. The objective of this article is to determine the high-ranking parameter which can influence the green packing, and to develop the optimum values for designing low emission packing materials. The outcome obtained manifests that material used in packing has larger influence on the green-house gas emission.

Weather Restrictions Posed on Marine Operations in the Barents Sea

Ove T. Gudmestad

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 107-119
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/7558D

Some marine activities in the Barents Sea are normally ongoing year-round; others are dependent on limited weather windows. The limitations for the marine operations are the special weather conditions characterized by unpredictable Polar Low situations during the fall, winter and spring seasons, as well as cold temperatures that also are causing sea spray icing and the potential for drifting ice in certain parts of the Sea. Also, due to these concerns and a limited number of weather stations in the area, the uncertainties in weather forecasts are high and operations taking more than a day or two may see large changes in weather so it may be expected that the operations will have to be abandoned. It must also be realized that large distances combined with challenging meteorological and oceanographic criteria as well as darkness during the winter period represents a concern for evacuation and rescue, should it be necessary to abandon ships and platforms. The long distances to the locations farthest away from shore are, furthermore, out of reach of helicopter assistance. These aspects make it necessary to conduct hazard identification studies and to include all relevant historical knowledge in the hazard identification session, prior to the execution of marine operations in the Barents Sea.

Advanced Study on Improving the Noise of Mechanical Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Pressure Loading

Seong-woo Woo, Dennis L. O’Neal

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 120-131
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/1643C

To improve the design of a new compressor system subjected to repetitive pressure loading, parametric Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) as new reliability methodology is suggested as a way to identify and reduce the fatigue failure due to design faults in the mechanical systems. The methodology includes: (1) a parametric ALT plan based on product BX lifetime, (2) load analysis, (3) a tailored sample of parametric ALTs with the design modifications and (4) an evaluation of whether the final design(s) of the product achieves the target BX lifetime. As a test case, a newly designed compressor in a French refrigerator was evaluated.  The compressor was redesigned to improve its energy efficiency. However, the refrigerator models with this compressor made undesirable noises and vibrations in field. Consequently, consumers requested replacement of their refrigerators. When the sound level of the problematic refrigerators was recorded for vibration, the result was 0.35G in an anechoic chamber. Upon closer inspection of the refrigerator, the noise originated in the reciprocating compressor where there was interference between the compressor upper shell and the stator frame in the compressor. The compressor noise needed to be reproduced experimentally to evaluate any design flaws. After the mechanical pressure loads of the compressor were analyzed in a simple vapor-compression cycle, a parametric ALT was then performed. The failure shapes in the first ALT were similar to those of the failed products from the field. As a corrective action, the stator frame in the compressor system was reshaped to increase the minimum gap between the compressor upper shell and the stator frame. During the second ALT, there were no problems. After parameter ALTs with corrective action plans, the lifetime of the newly designed compressor was assured to have a B1 life 10 years with a failure rate of 0.1%/year.

Evaluating Different Machine Learning Models for Predicting the Likelihood of Breast Cancer

Mochen Li, Gaurav Nanda, Raji Sundararajan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 132-142
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/1651C

Objective: With the continuous development of medical equipment and advancements in data collection, the size and features of the medical database are also increasing rapidly. However, the majority of current cancer detection still relies on doctors’ observation and test with cell tissue samples which does not seem to utilize the medical database to its full potential. Therefore, the research focus for this study was to examine if we can use artificial intelligence to identify patterns in medical databases that can be predictive of cancer detection. Accordingly, various machine learning (ML) methods were examined for their predictive performance with the perspective that how can they help the doctors in cancer diagnosis.

Methods: From the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) dataset, 154,899 screening mammograms records are applied in this research. This dataset includes 12 independent variables and 1 dependent variable, which was in the form of labeled data. We developed four prediction models using well-established machine learning algorithms: Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Bayesian Network, by training them on 80% of the data and examined their prediction performance on remaining 20% data. We performed a comparative analysis of the performance of these machine learning models.

Results: Among the four models, Naïve Bayes showed the best prediction accuracy for the malignant samples, which is predictive of cancer likelihood. The Bayesian Network model performed the second best. Both Logistic Regression and SVM yielded poor prediction performance for predicting malignant cases and thus the breast cancer likelihood.

Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques are one of the top priorities of technology development in petroleum industries nowadays due to the increase in demand for oil and gas which cannot be equalized by the primary production or secondary production methods. The main function of EOR process is to displace oil to the production wells by the injection of different fluids to supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir. Moreover, these injecting fluids can also help in the alterations of the properties of the reservoir like lowering the IFTs, wettability alteration, a change in pH value, emulsion formation, clay migration and oil viscosity reduction. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the residual oil recovery by combining the effects of gas injection followed by low salinity water injection for low permeability reservoirs. This is done by a series of flooding tests on selected tight carbonate core samples taken from Zakuum oil field in Abu Dhabi by using firstly low salinity water as the base case and nitrogen & CO2 injection followed by low salinity water flooding at reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature. The experimental results revealed that a significant improvement of the oil recovery is achieved by the nitrogen injection followed by the low salinity water flooding with a recovery factor of approximately 24% of the residual oil.

Nowadays, many cold storage applications require varied types of cooling loads to be connected to same refrigeration system. This shall be accomplished by feeding refrigerant to multi-evaporators. A bi-evaporator single compression system with individual expansion valves or with multiple arrangement of expansion valves is commonly used to meet this requirement. With increasing demand for energy conservation, it is necessary to further improve the efficiency of these types of refrigeration systems. One such method is using a two-phase ejector as expansion device in place of expansion valve, to enhance the system performance. Performance of this ejector-bi-evaporator compression refrigeration system will be assessed by carrying out energy analysis by means of numerical simulation in MATLAB and comparing with that of conventional expansion valve-bi-evaporator compression refrigeration system. R134a will be used as working fluid and the effect of evaporator temperature and condenser temperature on cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will be studied. Generally, performance of bi-evaporator ejector expansion VCRS shows marked improvement compared to conventional bi-evaporator VCRS and offers a better cooling solution for efficient cold storage systems which require cooling loads to be maintained at different evaporator temperatures.

Design of Compliant Mechanisms for Engineering Support - A Topology Optimisation Approach

G. Arunkumar, S. Premanand, A. Pandiyan

Advanced Aspects of Engineering Research Vol. 2, 18 February 2021, Page 160-171
https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aaer/v2/7705D

Compliant mechanisms are the focus of active research because of the flexibility, stability and unitized construction. It is a single elastic continuum used to transfer the force and motion mechanically by elastic deformation without any links and joints. Authors proposed a topology optimisation method for designing a compliant amplifier and steps for conducting the numerical experiments for any design domains with different types of constraint. In this work three regular shapes of the design domains has been considered. The paper narrates the applications of the compliant mechanisms in new age industries like automotive, aerospace and other service industries for engineering support with specific examples. Numerical experiments are carried out for different basic configurations to design the compliant amplifier. The compliant amplifier is used for amplifying the displacement and stroke performance of the strain actuators when integrated with Piezo actuators. The objective is to maximize the geometric advantage of the compliant amplifier. The maximization of the objective is accomplished efficient design of compliant mechanisms by the topology optimisation approach. The analysis results help to select the best compliant amplifier design from the basic configurations. The outcome of work will be useful for all types of strain Actuators.